Class 10 Science CONTROL AND COORDINATION Important questions

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Question 1
Why is control and coordination system necessary in organisms?
All organisms have mechanisms to control their functions. However, in higher organisms the system required is more complex as the individual is a complex multicellular organism with the parts separated by greater distance.
Question 2
What is homeostasis?
Homeostasis comes from two words- ‘homeo’ meaning same and ‘stasis’ meaning steady state within the body
Question 3
Give examples of some of the movements shown by plants
Movements as in animals is absent in plants except in cases of sperm cells of ferns and mosses swimming towards the egg. In plants, movement is association with the growth of the plants. For example, the shoot system moves towards sunlight and the root system towards earth.
Question 4
What are growth regulators?
Growth regulators are the chemicals that either promote or inhibit growth of the plants, their development and their responses to the environment. They are also called the phytohormones.
Question 5
What are the stages of growth in plants?
Growth in plants has three stages: Cell division, Cell enlargement, Cell differentiation.
Question 6
Name the different phytohormones.
The different phytohormones are auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscissic acid.
Question 7
What are auxins?
Auxins are phytohormones that are concerned with shoot and root elongation, maintaining dormancy and apical dominance.
Question 8
Give four major functions of auxins.
Four major functions of auxins are:
  1. Elongation of stem and root: In high concentrations it causes stem elongation ad in low concentration, it causes root elongation.
  2. Apical dominance: As long as the apical buds produce auxins, the lateral buds are not allowed to grow.
  3. Prevention of abscission: As long as the leaves and fruits produce auxin, they remain attached to the plant. If they stop producing auxins, they fall.
  4. Parthenocarpy: Auxins induce the ovaries to produce fruits without fertilization and this is called Parthenocarpy. It results in seedless fruits. For example, papaya, orange, etc.

Question 9
What are gibberellins and where are they synthesized?
Gibberellins are plants hormones that are mainly responsible for cell elongation. They are synthesized in embryos, young leaves, root tips, buds and seeds.
Question 10
What is the most important commercial application of gibberellins?
GA-3 (gibberellic acid), a gibberellin that has been studied the most, causes the barley seeds to produce the starch- digesting enzymes like maltase, amylase. This process is called malting. It is used in the brewing industry.
Question 11
What are cytokinins? Give an example.
They are phytohormones that induce cell division even in mature tissues. They were named ‘cytokinins’ as the cell division is also called cytokinesis. For example: zeatin, a cytokinin present in maize grains.
Question 12
Give one use of cytokinins in tissue culture.
Cytokinins are used in tissue culture to induce cell division in mature tissues.
Question 13
Name the phytohormone that causes ripening of fruits. Give one more function of this phytohormone.
The growth regulator that causes ripening is ethylene. It also promotes flowering.
Question 14
Name a growth inhibitor. Give two o its functions.
Abscisic acid is a growth inhibitor. Its functions are:
  1. It causes bud and seed dormancy
  2. It results in abscission of leaves and fruits

Question 15
What are the control and coordination mechanisms developed in animals?
The two control and coordination mechanisms developed in animals are: Nervous system, Endocrine system
Question 16
How does the conduction of messages take place in?
(i) Nervous system    
(ii) Endocrine system

Nervous system

The conduction in nervous system takes place with the help of electrical impulses travelling along the nerves

Endocrine system

The conduction in endocrine system takes place by the hormones being circulated in blood.

Question 17
What are the functions carried out by the nervous system in human beings?
The functions carried out by the nervous system in human beings are:


It perceives the changes around us through our senses


It controls and coordinates all the activities of the muscles in response to the changes outside.


It also maintains the internal environment of the body by coordinating the functions of the various internal organs and the involuntary muscles


It stores the previous experiences as memory that helps to think and analyses our reactions


It conducts messages between different parts of the body.

Question 18
What are the units of nervous system?
The units of nervous system are specialized cells called the neurons.
Question 19
What is an impulse?
An impulse is an electrical disturbance.
Question 20
What are the two potentials that are generated while transmission of an impulse?
The two potentials are resting potential a


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