- Introduction
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- Thermal Conduction
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- Thermal Conductivity
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- Convection
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- Radiation
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- Black Body Radiation
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- Stefan Boltzmann law
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- Nature of thermal Radiation
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- Kirchoff's law
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- Newton's Law of Cooling
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- Solved examples

**Subjective Questions of Heat Transfer**

**Q-1:**

A rod is composed of two section whose length are L_{1} and L_{2} and heat conductivities are K_{1} and K_{2} respectivity.One end of the rod is kept at T_{1} and other end is kept at T_{2}.The rod is enclosed in a thermally insulating sheath.

a. Find the temperature of the interface.

b. Find the equivalent thermal conductivity of the system.

c. Find the heat current in the rod

**Q-2:**

An 1 mole of a gas whose adiabatic coefficient is 1.4 is at an initial temperature T_{0} ,is enclosed in a cylindrical vessel fitted with a light piston. The surrounding temperature is T_{S} and atmospheric pressure is P_{a}.Heat may be conducted between the surrounding and gas through the bottom of the cylinder. The bottom has surface area A, thickness is L_{1} and thermal conductivity K.Asumming all the changes to be slow and (T_{s} > T_{0}).

a, find the temperature of the gas as a function of the time t.

b. Find the distance moved by the gas as function of the time t.

**Q-3:**

A body A of heat capacity s is kept in a surrounding where temperature is T_{a}.It cools down according Newton laws of cooling. The mass of the body is m and the body initial temperature is T_{0}.

a. Find the value of constant k if the temperature at time t_{1} is T_{1}

b. finds the maximum heat body can lose.

c. Find the time at which body loses 80% of the total heat loss.

d. plots the graph for the logarithm of the numerical value of the temperature difference of the body A and its surrounding with respect to time t.

**Q-4:**

A rod of length l with thermally insulated lateral surface consists of a material whose heat conductivity coefficient varies with temperature given below

K=αT^{1/2} where α is constant.

the end of the rod are kept at the temperature T_{1} and T_{2} where T_{1} > T_{2}.

Find the function T(x) where x is the distance from end where the temperature is T_{1}

And the heat flow through the rod

**Q-5:**

Six identical rods AB,BC,BD,CE,and DF are joined as shown in figure. The length ,crossectional area of each rod is A and L.

The thermal conductivities of the rods are as below

**AB**->K

**BC** and **BD** -> K/2

**CE** ,**DE** and **EF** ->K

The ends A and F are maintained at the temperature T_{1} and T_{2}.Asumming no loss of heat to the atmosphere, find

a. Thermal resistance of the six rods

b. Thermal resistance of the whole system

c. The temperature at the points T_{B},T_{C},T_{D},T_{E}

d. The heat flow ratio among the path BCE and BDE.

**Q-6:**

A spherical shell has inner and outer radii as a and b respectively. And temperature at the inner and outer surface area are T_{a} and T_{b} And T_{a} > T_{b}.K is the thermal conductivity of the spherical shell.

Find the heat current through the shell

**Q-7:**

A rod of length l as shown is figure above with thermally insulated lateral surface is made of two material whose thermal conductivies are K_{1} and K_{2} respectively. The crossectinal area is a square having edge d. Temperature at the ends are T_{1} and T_{2}(T_{1} > T_{2})

a, Find the heat flow

b. Equivalent thermal conductivity of the Rod

**Q-8:**

A cubical Block of mass 1 kg and edge 5 cm is heated to 227 °C.It is kept in a chamber which is maintained at the temperature 27 °C. Assuming the cubical block is having value of e=.5

a. Find the amount of radiation falling on the block.

b. Find the net amount of heat flow outside the block.

c. Find the rate at which temperature decrease at the beginning if specific heat=400J/kg-K

d. if the chamber is maintained at the same temperature as the block. Find the heat absorbed and heat radiated by the block.

σ=6.0x10^{-8} W/m^{2}-K^{4}

**Q-9:**

One end of the rod of length L is inserted in furnace which is maintained at temperature T_{1}.The sides of the rod are covered with insulating material. Other end emits radiation with emissivity e. The temperature of the surrounding T_{s}.Let T_{2} is the temperature of the end in steady state.

a. Find the thermal conductivity of the Rod

b. Find the heat flow in the Rod.

A Rod is initially at a uniform temperature at T

The tungsten element of the electric lamp has as surface area A and Power is P and emissivity is .4

a. Find the temperature of the filament

b. if the tungsten filament behave like blackbody ,find the % increase in power required to maintain the same temperature.

A sphere, a cube and a circular plate have the same mass and are made of same material. All of them are at the same temperature T.Which one will have maximum rate of cooling.

A hole of radius R

a. Find the temperature as a function of radius from center

b. Find the heat flow per unit time

Two metallic sphere X & Y are made of same material and have identical surface finish. Let m

Also (m

A system is shown in figure.

It is made of semicircular Rod (AXB) which is joined at its ends to a straight rod AB of same material and the same crossection .The straight Rod form a diameter of the other rod. Similarly semicircular Rod (BYD) which is joined at its ends to a straight rod of same material and cross-section area.

a. Find the ratio of heat transfer across AXB & AB

b. Find the ratio of heat transfer across BYD & BD

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