A ferromagnetic material has a spontaneous magnetic moment- magnetic moment even in zero applied magnetic field this means that electron spins and magnetic moments are arranged in a regular manner. Consider a paramagnet with a concentration of N ions of spin S. Given an internal interaction tending to line up the magnetic moments parallel to […]

# B.Sc.

## Maxwell’s equations

This article is about Maxwell’s Equations. 1. Integral Form of Gauss’s Law Under this heading, I’ll cover ” Gauss’s law for electric fields ” which is among one of Maxwell’s equations. In this article, I’ll try to cover the Integral form of Gauss’s Law. Gauss’s law for electric fields as we all know deals with […]

## Gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance

In this article learn about what is Gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance. We have also written an article on scalar and vector fields which is the topic you must learn before doing this topic. The gradient of a scalar field Let us consider a metal bar whose temperature varies from point […]

## Scalar and Vector fields

In this article, learn what are Scalar and Vector fields. We know that many physical quantities like temperature, electric or gravitational field, etc. have different values at different points in space, for example, the electric field of a point charge is large near the charge and it decreases as we got farther away from the […]

## Fourier Series formula sheet

Fourier series is an expansion of a periodic function of period $2\pi$ which is representation of a function in a series of sine or cosine such as $f(x)=a_{0}+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty }a_{n}cos(nx)+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty }b_{n}sin(nx)$ where $a_{0}$ , $a_{n}$ and $b_{n}$ are constants and are known as fourier coefficients. In applying fourier theorem for analysis of an complex periodic function , given function must satisfy following condition (i) It […]

## Photoelectric effect – brief introduction

Photoelectric effect The main idea of this article is to present a brief overview of the phenomenon called photoelectric effect. Photoelectric Effect is the emission of electrons by a substance under the action of light Photoelectric phenomenon was first noticed by Hertz when he noticed that sparks occur more readily in the air gap of […]