Category Archives: B.Sc.


A ferromagnetic material has a spontaneous magnetic moment- magnetic moment even in zero applied magnetic field this means that electron spins and magnetic moments are arranged in a regular manner. Consider a paramagnet with a concentration of N ions of spin S. Given an internal interaction tending to line up the magnetic moments parallel to each other, we shall have a ferromagnet. This internal interaction … Continue reading Ferromagnetism »

Maxwell’s equations

This article is about Maxwell’s Equations. 1. Integral Form of Gauss’s Law Under this heading, I’ll cover ” Gauss’s law for electric fields ” which is among one of Maxwell’s equations. In this article, I’ll try to cover the Integral form of Gauss’s Law. Gauss’s law for electric fields as we all know deals with the electrostatic field, this law to be a powerful tool … Continue reading Maxwell’s equations »

Gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance

Learn about what is Gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance. The gradient of a scalar field Let us consider a metal bar whose temperature varies from point to point in some complicated manner. So, temperature will be a function of x, y, z in Cartesian co-ordinate system. Hence temperature here is a scalar field represented by the function T(x,y,z). Since temperature depends on … Continue reading Gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance »

Scalar and Vector fields

In this article, learn what are Scalar and Vector fields. We know that many physical quantities like temperature, electric or gravitational field etc. have different values at different points in space, for example, the electric field of a point charge is large near the charge and it decreases as we go farther away from the charge. So we can say that electric field here is the … Continue reading Scalar and Vector fields »

Fourier Series formula sheet

Fourier series is an expansion of a periodic function of period $2\pi$ which is representation of a function in a series of sine or cosine such as $f(x)=a_{0}+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty }a_{n}cos(nx)+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty }b_{n}sin(nx)$ where $a_{0}$ , $a_{n}$ and $b_{n}$ are constants and are known as fourier coefficients. In applying fourier theorem for analysis of an complex periodic function , given function must satisfy following condition (i) It should be single valued (ii) It should be continuous.  Drichlet’s Conditions(sufficient … Continue reading Fourier Series formula sheet »

Kinetic energy of system of particles

This article is about Kinetic energy of system of particles. This topic comes under the chapter Dynamics of System of Particles. It is for B.Sc. students and comes under subject mechanics. For full chapter notes links please visit this link Dynamics of System of Particles Kinetic energy of the system of particles Let there are n number of particles in a n particle system and … Continue reading Kinetic energy of system of particles »