Kepler’s Law of Planetary motion (Central Forces)

Motion Under Central forces (series List) Introduction Equation of motion under central forces Law of conservation of angular momentum Law of conservation of energy Equation of motion (equation of path of moving particle) Form of motion under the effect of central forces Kepler’s Law of Planetary motion This article is about Kepler’s Law of Planetary motion. This article is for B.Sc. physics first year students … Continue reading Kepler’s Law of Planetary motion (Central Forces) »

Fourier series notes

Fourier series is an expansion of a periodic function of period $2\pi$ which is representation of a function in a series of sine or cosine such as $f(x)=a_{0}+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty }a_{n}cos(nx)+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty }b_{n}sin(nx)$ where $a_{0} $, $a_{n}$ and $b_{n}$ are constants and are known as Fourier coefficients. In applying Fourier theorem for analysis of a complex periodic function, given function must satisfy the following condition (i) It should be single valued (ii) It should be continuous. Drichlet’s Conditions … Continue reading Fourier series notes »

complex analysis notes

Complex Variables A function is said to be analytic in a domain D if it is single-valued and differentiable at every point in the domain D. Points in a domain at which function is not differentiable are singularities of the function in domain D. Cauchy Riemann conditions for a function $\textit{f(z)=u(x,y)+iv(x,y)}$ to be analytic at point z $\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}=\frac{\partial v}{\partial y}$ $\frac{\partial v}{\partial x}=-\frac{\partial u}{\partial y}$ … Continue reading complex analysis notes »


A ferromagnetic material has a spontaneous magnetic moment- magnetic moment even in zero applied magnetic field this means that electron spins and magnetic moments are arranged in a regular manner. Consider a paramagnet with a concentration of N ions of spin S. Given an internal interaction tending to line up the magnetic moments parallel to each other, we shall have a ferromagnet. This internal interaction … Continue reading Ferromagnetism »

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation

In previous article we have learned about Educational evaluation where we have written about definition, purpose and principles of evaluation. Now this article is about Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation. Continuous And Comprehensive Evaluation:- CCE refers to a system of school based assessment that covers all aspects of student’s development. It takes care of assessment of all-round development of the child’s personality. The main aim of … Continue reading Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation »

Educational evaluation : definition, purpose and principles

This article is about educational evaluation, its definition, purpose, and principles. Let us first begin with basic definitions of test, measurement, and evaluation. 1. What is Test:- In the classroom situation, the word ‘test’ means to judge the knowledge understanding and intelligence of the students. Tests can be held after completing the chapter. A teacher can take a test of his students to know about … Continue reading Educational evaluation : definition, purpose and principles »