This article is about Glaser's Basic teaching model one of the teaching models used in teaching process. It is for B.Ed students of various Indian Universities.
Robert Glaser developed this model in 1962. It explains the relationship between teaching and learning. It provides a simple and adequate conceptualization of the teaching process. This model belongs to the category of psychological models of teaching.
Why this teaching model is basic teaching model
- It is called Basic teaching model because it presents a very basic analysis of the process of teaching in terms of the elements of teaching.
- This model applies to all levels of education i.e., elementary, secondary, higher etc.. It is also applied to subject matter related to any subject as a teacher can use this model for teaching them.
- Teaching for any length of time (40 minutes, 1 hour, weeks etc.) is possible using this model. It explains the whole teaching learning process by dividing it into four basic components
- Instructional objectives
- Entering behaviour
- Instructional procedures
- Performance assessment
Assumptions of Basic Teaching Model
- It is developed on the assumption that “every lesson assumes some knowledge on the part of the learner”
- Through instructional procedure, the teacher guides the learner from entry behavior to terminal behavior.
Components of basic training model
Step 1: Instructional objectives
The instructional objective is those objectives that the student should attain upon completion of a unit of instruction.
- These objectives may be stated in general, specific or in behavioral terms.
- For instruction to be effective and systematic, the instructional objectives are stated in behavioral terms.
Step 2: Entering behavior
- Every learner has initial behavior before he enters teaching-learning process.
- It is essential to detect the entering behavior of the learner before giving instructions.
- It is just like previous knowledge of a subject or the performance of the learner in terms of educational abilities.
- This step is important because only after this step the teacher can take the students from entry behavior to terminal behavior.
Step: 3 Instructional procedures
- It is the most active part of the teaching process.
- It indicates the method, procedure, and strategies of teaching which depends on objectives and entry behavior of the learner.
- This component depends on two previous components.
Step: 4 Performance assessments.
- Here ultimate behavior of the learner is tested so that feedback may be given.
- If the need arises objectives may be modified, the instructional procedure may be improved and assessment of performance is made again.
- Evolution techniques used for the purpose of assessment tests are observation, interview, rating scale etc.
- All four basic components are interrelated with one another. They interact and influence each other.
- If the performance assessment indicates that the learners have not been able to achieve the objectives set for them, necessary changes are brought about in any one or all proceeding components of this model so that the goals of instruction are attained.
Description of Glaser’s Basic Training Model
Glaser’s models may be described in terms of the fundamental elements as under:-
- Focus: – This model attempts to pin point the process and major activities comprising the entire teaching, learning process. It also brings into the light sequence to be followed in the instructional process.
- Syntax: – In this model flow of activities is sequential as listed below:-
(a) First, the objectives to be followed are fixed in accordance with Blooms Taxonomy.(b) Then the entering behavior showing the understanding and background of the student is determined.(c) Thereafter the instruction work is carried out to achieve the objectives keeping in view the entering behavior of the learner.(d) The ultimate behavior of the learner is determined by using a different type of tests.
- Social systemThe model describes a teacher dominated classroom climate.Here students are receptive and appreciative of the teaching activities. The success of this model depends upon the competency and ability of the teacher in term of various skills like the formulation of objectives, use of proper strategies, techniques of evolution etc.
- Principles of reactionMain principles of reaction are as follows.(a) Principles of interdependence: -The student’s responses are to be understood and dealt within the light of the interaction and interdependence, process and assessments.(b) The principle of active involvement: -Proper execution of this model requires a lot of activity on the part of the teacher. The model requires the active involvement of the teacher from the beginning to the end. Understanding of the potential and deficiencies of the students is required at every stage of the teacher in order to achieve the objectives.(c) Principles of follow up: – An assessment is made after teaching. In case the results are not accordance with set objectives, gaps and deficiencies are found out by the teacher. Then he tries to rectify the drawbacks by taking corrective measures.
- Support system: – The teacher needs following support systems for its success.(a) Proper environment: – proper teaching learning environment and situations are required for the use of suitable teaching strategies.(b) Pre-service and In service facilities:- availability of adequate pre-service and in-service activities to the teachers to acquire needed skills for using this model.(c) Availability of appropriate evolution device for the assessment of entering and terminal behavior of the students.
- Application: – Since the model is quite systematic and structured, it is applicable to almost all the learning and teaching situations. It implies a personal contact between the teacher and the student. It implies a greater emphasis on the competency of the teacher rather than on his personality.