Category Archives: Electromagnetism


A ferromagnetic material has a spontaneous magnetic moment- magnetic moment even in zero applied magnetic field this means that electron spins and magnetic moments are arranged in a regular manner. Consider a paramagnet with a concentration of N ions of spin S. Given an internal interaction tending to line up the magnetic moments parallel to each other, we shall have a ferromagnet. This internal interaction … Continue reading Ferromagnetism »

Maxwell’s equations

This article is about Maxwell’s Equations. 1. Integral Form of Gauss’s Law Under this heading, I’ll cover ” Gauss’s law for electric fields ” which is among one of Maxwell’s equations. In this article, I’ll try to cover the Integral form of Gauss’s Law. Gauss’s law for electric fields as we all know deals with the electrostatic field, this law to be a powerful tool … Continue reading Maxwell’s equations »

Gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance

Learn about what is Gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance. The gradient of a scalar field Let us consider a metal bar whose temperature varies from point to point in some complicated manner. So, temperature will be a function of x, y, z in Cartesian co-ordinate system. Hence temperature here is a scalar field represented by the function T(x,y,z). Since temperature depends on … Continue reading Gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance »

Scalar and Vector fields

In this article, learn what are Scalar and Vector fields. We know that many physical quantities like temperature, electric or gravitational field etc. have different values at different points in space, for example, the electric field of a point charge is large near the charge and it decreases as we go farther away from the charge. So we can say that electric field here is the … Continue reading Scalar and Vector fields »