# models of teaching

This article is about models of teaching. It is for B.Ed students of various Indian Universities. Here find notes about types and elements of teaching models.

## models of teaching

Models of teaching help a teacher to improve his capacity to teach. Using them teacher teaches more children and create a richer and more diverse environment to them. Generally, a model of teaching is a teaching plan that can be used to design teaching in a classroom, to shape instructional material and curricula.

### Definition of teaching model

(a) According to Paul de Eggen ” Models of teaching are perspective teaching strategies designed to accomplish a particular instructional goal”.
(b) According to Joyce and Weil ” A model of teaching consists of guidelines for designing educational activities and environments. It specifies ways of teaching and learning that are intended to attain certain kinds of goals”
So, models are used to select and structure teaching strategies, methods, skills and student activities for particular instructional emphasis.
Hence, teaching model is an instructional design, which portrays how various teaching-learning conditions are interrelated to each other. It is just a blueprint for the realization of stipulated objectives. These models help to improve teacher effectiveness.
Joyce and Weil has grouped teaching models into four major families :-

1. Information processing model: – Models of this category develop creativity and intellectual ability of learner. Some examples of this model type are Inductive thinking model, Inquiry training model, concept attainment model, scientific inquiry model etc.
2. Social interaction model: – The models of this type emphasize the importance of the social relations of the person with others in the society. This type of model increase democratic process in society and develop the capabilities of interpersonal relationships. Some examples of this type of model include group investigation, social inquiry, social simulation model, laboratory method etc.
3. Personal development model: – These models emphasize on the process by which individuals construct and organize his personal life, emotional life, and his reality. Some examples of this type of model include awareness training, conceptual systems, classroom meeting models etc
4. Behavior modification model: – These models are purely psychological models. They emphasize on changing external behavior of the learners by manipulating stimulus, response, and reinforcement. Some examples of this type of model include self-control through operant methods etc.

### Fundamental elements of models of teaching

An outline of a model of teaching can be explained with the help of following six fundamental elements:-

1. Focus: – Focus of any teaching model tells us about the central idea of the model. Focus of teaching model includes (a) Objectives of teaching (b) Aims to be achieved
2. Syntax: – Syntax is the sequence of steps of activities involved in the organization of the complete program of teaching. It also refers to the description or structure of the model in action. Each teaching model consists of several phases and activities to be arranged in specific sequence. Syntax help teacher uses the model. It tells him how he should begin and proceed further.
3. Social System: – a Social system is related to the interaction between students and teacher. It concerns about the interactive roles and relationships between the teacher and student, the student expected norms and which student behavior should be rewarded. Basis of this element is that the teaching process is a social process The arrangement of the interaction of student and is done in this stop. Its form depends upon the focus and objectives of teaching. Since every teaching model is different, each model will have its own social system and rules of engagement.
4. The principle of reaction: – The principles of reaction are the guidelines for the teacher’s response to the learner. While using the model, how should a teacher regard and respond to the activities of the students, is a concern of this element. Every model through its principle of reaction provides the teacher with particular and unique rules of thumb by which to ‘turn in’ to the students and select appropriate responses to what the student does (Weli and Joyce).
5. Support system: – Support system describes the supporting conditions to meet the model goal. It is needed to create the environment specified by the model goal. It is extra requirement beyond the usual human skills, capacities, and teaching facilities. This also includes special books, films, laboratory kits, reference materials, facilities etc.
6. Application and effects: – This element of the model describes the application of the model. Some models are meant for short lessons, some are for large and some are for both. Models also differ in terms of goal achievements – cognitive, affective or psycho-motor. Thus, each teaching model through this element tries to describe the feasibility of its use in achieving specific educational goals and determining specific work environment.