This article is about bases of curriculum development. You can study this topic under your pedagogy subjects or under the subject Knowledge and curriculum while doing B.Ed.
Bases are the pillars upon which the building lies. Curriculum development also has several bases. When planning for curriculum, two categories of basis are
1. that is instructional in nature
2. Those that affect people directly
The instructional bases of curriculum planning include planning domains, the context or characteristics of school situation, impact of current trends and issues, and the use of strategic planning.
Those bases of curriculum planning that affect people directly includes student and teacher needs, local curriculum problems to be addressed , competencies of planners etc.
All these bases affect the curriculum planning process in various ways and to differing degrees. The curriculum should enable all young people to become
- successful learners who enjoy learning , make progress and achieve.
- confident individuals who are able to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives.
- respomsible citizens who make positive contributions to the society.
Let us now learn about some other bases that should be considered while developing curriculum.
1. Philosophical bases of curriculum
- At the foundation of every curriculum there is the educational philosophy of people directly involved in the process of curriculum development.
- Philosophy is the end and education is the means to achieve that end.
- Philosophy determines the goal of life and education tries to achieve that goal.
- The contents of curriculum change to suit the prevalent ideologies and social ways of thinking.
- So, curriculum is positively correlated with the needs and requirements of the society.
- Philosophy provides curriculum specialists with a framework for broad issues and tasks, in general what experiences and activities to stress in school and classroom.
2. Sociological bases of curriculum
- Society influences the school curriculum.
- Every society, community or nation has an essential social obligation to arrange the education of children.
- Sociological considerations influences curriculum development in following distinct ways:-
- It provides a way for carrying out changes in behavior of the students as per needs and demands of the society or nation.
- To make education as a instrument of social changes and progress.
- To preserve the culture and transmit it to young children.
- To prepare the learners for the future society.
Thus sociological considerations provides necessary guidelines for developing useful curriculum for the betterment and the progress of the society.
3. Psychological bases of curriculum
- Education is for the child. Child is the center of educational process.
- Through education efforts are made for bringing desirable changes in the behavior of the learners.
- Psychology as a science of behavior is linked with the processs of imparting education.
- It helps curriculum developers in deciding what contents and learning experiences can be included in the curriculum.
- It provides bases for curriculum development in such a way that curriculum could be developed according to the children in a particular grade and their needs.
- The psychology of individual differences among children influence the plan and development of curriculum. So, curriculum should have enough variety and elasticity to allow individual differences, needs and interests.
- So, we can conclude that the curriculum development is guided by the ideas put forward by psychologists (Piaget, Erickson, Bruner etc.) from time to time. Hence curriculum development has sufficient psychological bases.