Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)


This article on the Secondary Education Commission is part of a series of articles for Contemporary India and Education B.Ed. Notes. We also have other such articles. Do not forget to check them out.

Secondary Education Commission

Secondary Education Commission

In this article get Mudaliar Commission B.Ed. notes. Mudaliar Commission is also known as the Secondary education commission.

  • In 1952 Union Government of India appointed Dr. A Laxman Swami Mudaliar as a chairman of secondary education commission.
  • The aim of this commission was to examine the existing system of secondary education in the country. It aims to suggest measures to improve it.
  • The commission submitted its report in August 1963 on almost all aspects of secondary education.
  • Major recommendations of the commission were
    1. installation of the higher secondary system with diversified courses
    2. three language formula
    3. emphasis on educational and vocational guidance
    4. improvement in the system of examination
    5. improvement in the methods of teaching
  • These recommendations were discussed by the secondary advisory board of education and were accepted by certain modifications.
  • A scheme of higher secondary education was launched all over India.
  • The scope of AICSE was widened and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was founded at the center for providing educational guidance and facilities to the states.

Recommendation of Mudaliar commission

After extensive research through a questionnaire, dealing with various aspects of secondary education and tour of various parts of India the commission presented a report.

1. Organization of curriculum

Know more about Curriculum development

(a) At middle school stage
Commission proposed the following objectives for middle school stage keeping in mind the political emotional and social needs of the country

  • Knowledge of the physical environment
  • Development of democratic values
  • Vocational development
  • Development of intellectual and aesthetic values.

He suggested following broad outlines for middle school curriculum(i) Language – mother tongue or original language, national language and international language.(ii) Subjects to be taught at the middle stage –

  • Social studies
  • General science
  • Mathematics
  • Art and music
  • Physical education
  • Craft

(b) At the higher secondary stage
At this stage, the curriculum is divided into two categories
(i) Core curriculum – It is common for all students. It includes the study of

  • Language
  • General Science
  • Social studies
  • Elementary mathematics
  • Craft

(ii) Higher curriculum –
In addition to the core curriculum, every student has to take three subjects out of the following seven groups
Group I – Humanities group – history, geography, economics, psychology, maths, etc.
Group II – Science group – Physics, chemistry, maths, geography, health, and hygiene
Group II – Technical group – applied mathematics, applied science, elements of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering.
Group IV – Commercial group – economics, bookkeeping, shorthand, typewriting, etc.
Group V – Agricultural group – genera; agriculture, horticulture, agriculture botany and chemistry
Group VI – Fine Arts group – Art, painting, music, dancing, etc
Group VII – Home Science Group – Home economics, nutrition and cookery, mothercraft and child care, home nursing, etc.

2. Principle of curriculum construction

Principle of curriculum construction under secondary education commission includes the following points –



  • The totality of Experience – It means along with academic experiences pupil get a variety of experiences through various activities in the classroom, playground, library, workshops, etc.
  • Principle of variety and Elasticity – Commission supported flexible curriculum which can be related to the interest, need and life of the student
  • Principle of leisure – It should be able to train the students for both work and leisure
  • Principle of correlation – Subjects in the curriculum should be correlated to each other. Subjects should be related to real-life experience. They should not be narrow items of information.
  • Principle of Community-Centeredness – Curriculum must be related to community life.
  • Importance should be on productive work
  • It should include practical knowledge along with theoretical knowledge

3. Recommendations on textbooks

  • A high power textbook committee should be constituted for selection and reforms
  • Frequent changes in textbooks prescribed for studies should be discouraged
  • Single textbook should not be prescribed for every subject of study
  • Books should not spread hatred, enmity against any community, religion or social customs

4. Recommendations on teaching methods

  • Teaching method should provide opportunities for students to develop clear thinking and expression in both speech and writing
  • Teaching methods should be activity-based
  • Teaching should take care of the individual difference
  • It should inculcate desirable values and attitudes
  • There should be more focus on experimental and demonstration methods

5. Recommendations on improving exam systems

  • number of external exams should be reduced
  • Subjectivity (essay type questions) should be minimized by introducing objective questions
  • The nature of the test should be discouraging cramming and encourage intelligent understanding. So test should concern with rational understanding
  • School records should be maintained for every student indicating work done by him
  • The five-point scale of Mudaliar commission :
    students should be evaluated on 5 points
    A-distinction
    B-credit
    C-pass
    D and E-fail or re-exam
  • There should be a provision for the compartmental exam, one for each subject

6. Vacationalistaion of education

  • Diversification of courses of educational programs to meet varying interests, aptitudes, and talents
  • Committee advised on provision of agricultural and technical education

7. Guidance in education

  • There should be an appointment of guidance officer and career masters in schools for education, personal and social guidance

8. Education of character

  • Close relationships between teachers and students for better discipline
  • NCC scout camps should be encouraged
  • Both co-curricular and extra-curricular activities should be included in school education
  • First aid and junior red cross work should be initiated

Apart from this Mudaliar commission also advised about-

9. Physical welfare of students
10.Improvement in teachers status
11. Teachers training

12. Administration and finance

Related Resources
1. CONTEMPORARY INDIA AND EDUCATION by bookman
2. Contemporary India And Education
3. https://unacademy.com/lesson/mudaliar-commission-1952-in-hindi/E00R1LE4

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