Physical World Class 11 Notes Physics Chapter 1
Class 11 Physics Chapter 1 Notes: Welcome to our comprehensive notes on the chapter called ‘Physical World’ of class 11 physics NCERT book. This chapter provides an overview of the broad and diverse field of physics. It explores the scope of physics, its interaction with technology and society, the fundamental forces that govern nature, and the inherent nature of physical laws.
The chapter underscores the significance of conservation principles in comprehending natural phenomena. Join us as we unravel these concepts and their real-world implications, making the study of physics both engaging and relatable for you.”
What is Physics?
Physics is a branch of science that deals with the study of the fundamental laws of nature and their manifestation in different phenomena.
It is a systematic attempt to understand natural phenomena in as much detail and depth as possible and use the knowledge so gained to predict, modify, and control phenomena.
The word ‘Physics’ originates from the Greek word ‘physis’ meaning ‘nature’. Its Sanskrit equivalent is ‘Bhautiki‘ which refers to the study of the physical world.
The Essence of Physics
Physics is the study of the basic laws of nature and their manifestation in different phenomena. The basic laws of physics are universal and apply in widely different contexts and conditions. The scope of physics is wide, covering a tremendous range of magnitude of physical quantities. It deals with phenomena at a very small scale of length involving electrons, protons, etc. On the other end, it deals with astronomical phenomena at the scale of galaxies or even the entire universe.
The Scientific Method in Physics
The scientific method in physics involves several interconnected steps:
- Systematic observations
- Controlled experiments
- Qualitative and quantitative reasoning
- Mathematical modelling
The curiosity to learn about the world and unravel the secrets of nature is the first step towards the discovery of science.
The Role of Quantitative Measurement
- Quantitative measurement is central to the growth of science, especially physics because the laws of nature are expressible in precise mathematical equations.
- The strategy of approximation turned out to be very successful.
- Scientists recognized the importance of extracting the essential features of a phenomenon from its less significant aspects.
The Universality of Physical Laws
The basic laws of physics are universal — the same laws apply in widely different contexts. For example, the universal law of gravitation proposed by Newton is an assumption or hypothesis, that he proposed out of his ingenuity. It not only explains these phenomena, it also allows us to predict the results of future experiments.
Scope and Excitement of Physics
Physics is a vast field that covers a tremendous range of magnitudes of physical quantities like length, mass, time, and energy. It is divided into two primary domains: macroscopic and microscopic.
Macroscopic and Microscopic Domains
The macroscopic domain includes phenomena at the laboratory, terrestrial, and astronomical scales. It deals with the motion of bodies as a whole and includes subjects like Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Optics, and Thermodynamics. For example, the propulsion of a rocket by a jet of ejecting gases, propagation of water waves or sound waves in the air, the equilibrium of a bent rod under a load, etc., are problems of mechanics.
The microscopic domain, on the other hand, deals with the constitution and structure of matter at the minute scales of atoms and nuclei. Classical physics is inadequate to handle this domain, and Quantum Theory is currently accepted as the proper framework for explaining microscopic phenomena.
Physics and Its Relation to Other Sciences
Physics is often considered the foundation of all-natural sciences. It provides the basic principles that underlie all natural phenomena and the interactions between matter and energy. Here’s how physics interacts with other branches of science:
- Physics and Mathematics: Mathematics is the language of physics. The study of physical variables led to the development of calculus and differential equations. The meaningful interpretation of mathematical principles in the context of the physical world is a significant aspect of physics.
- Physics and Chemistry: Physics provides the foundation for understanding the structure and properties of matter, which is central to chemistry. Concepts such as X-ray diffraction and radioactivity have helped distinguish between various solids and modify the periodic table.
- Physics and Biology: Physics has contributed significantly to the field of biology. The study of pressure and its measurement has helped us understand blood pressure and the functioning of the heart. The invention of X-rays and the design of electron and optical microscopes have revolutionized medical science.
- Physics and Astronomy: Physics has enabled us to explore the universe. The development of optical telescopes and the discovery of radio telescopes have revolutionized the field of astronomy.
- Physics and Meteorology: The study of pressure variations in physics helps us forecast the weather, contributing significantly to meteorology.
Hypothesis, Axioms, and Models
All physics, and also mathematics, is based on assumptions, each of which is variously called a hypothesis or axiom or postulate. For example, the universal law of gravitation proposed by Newton is an assumption or hypothesis, that he proposed out of his ingenuity. It can be verified and substantiated by experiments and observations.
Physics, Technology, and Society
The relationship between physics, technology, and society is intricate and multifaceted. Physics and technology are interdependent, with each propelling the other forward. This relationship has a direct and profound impact on society.
- Physics and Technology: Physics has been the cornerstone of many technological advancements. For example, the principles of electromagnetism have led to the development of electric power generation and telecommunications. Quantum mechanics has given rise to technologies like semiconductors and lasers.
- Physics and Society: The technologies derived from physics have had a profound impact on society. They have revolutionized communication, transportation, and healthcare, and have provided us with tools to better understand and protect our environment.
- Technology Driving Physics: Conversely, technology can also give rise to new physics. The need to understand and improve the working of heat engines led to the development of the discipline of thermodynamics. The steam engine, a technological marvel, was inseparable from the Industrial Revolution in England in the 18th century, which had a significant impact on the course of human civilization.
Here is a table showing the link between various technologies and the physics principles they are based on:
|Technology||Related Physics Principles|
|Wireless Communication||Electromagnetic waves, Antenna theory|
|Electric Motors||Electromagnetism, Lorentz force|
|GPS Navigation||General Relativity, Electromagnetic waves|
|Nuclear Power Plants||Nuclear fission, Thermodynamics|
|Solar Panels||Photovoltaic effect, Quantum mechanics|
|MRI Scanners||Nuclear magnetic resonance, Quantum mechanics|
|LED Lights||Electroluminescence, Quantum mechanics|
|Computer Processors||Semiconductor physics, Quantum mechanics|
|Fiber Optic Communication||Total internal reflection, Wave propagation|
|Electric Cars||Electromagnetism, Energy conversion|
|Lasers||Stimulated emission, Quantum mechanics|
|X-ray Imaging||X-ray production, Electromagnetic spectrum|
|Satellite Technology||Gravitational force, Orbital mechanics|
These examples illustrate how fundamental principles of physics are applied in various technologies that we use in our daily lives.
Fundamental Forces in Nature
In the vast universe, all phenomena, from the motion of celestial bodies to the behaviour of subatomic particles, are governed by four fundamental forces. These forces are the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force.
The gravitational force is the most familiar to us. It is the force that keeps us grounded on Earth, governs the motion of planets around the Sun, and even influences the structure and behaviour of galaxies. Despite its universal presence, it is the weakest of the four fundamental forces. It is always attractive and acts between any two pieces of matter in the universe.
The electromagnetic force is responsible for the behaviour of electrically charged particles. It is immensely stronger than the gravitational force. It is responsible for holding electrons in their orbits around the nucleus, thus enabling the existence of atoms, and consequently, all matter. It can be both attractive and repulsive, depending on the nature of the charges involved.
Strong Nuclear Force
The strong nuclear force, as the name suggests, is the strongest of all forces. It acts at the subatomic level, holding protons and neutrons together within the nucleus of an atom. Despite its strength, its influence is limited to very short distances, approximately the size of an atomic nucleus.
Weak Nuclear Force
The weak nuclear force, while being stronger than gravity, is weaker than both the electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces. It is responsible for certain types of nuclear processes such as beta decay, which results in the transformation of a neutron into a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino.
These four fundamental forces govern the diverse phenomena of the physical world. They are the pillars upon which the entire edifice of physics rests. Understanding these forces and their interplay is crucial to understanding the universe and its workings.
The unification of these forces is a fundamental quest in physics. The electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces have now been unified and are seen as aspects of a single ‘electro-weak’ force. Attempts are being made to unify the electro-weak and the strong force.
Nature of Physical Laws
Physical laws are the foundations of physics, providing a mathematical description of the natural world. They are the principles that govern the behaviour and interactions of matter and energy in the universe.
Conservation Laws in Physics
Conservation laws are fundamental to the understanding of physics. They state that certain physical quantities remain constant—they are conserved—over time. These laws have a deep connection with the symmetries of nature. Here are some of the most important conservation laws:
- Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be transformed from one form to another. This principle is known as the conservation of energy or the first law of thermodynamics.
- Conservation of Momentum: The total momentum of an isolated system remains constant if no external forces act on it.
- Conservation of Angular Momentum: The angular momentum of a system remains constant unless acted on by an external torque.
- Conservation of Charge: The total charge in an isolated system remains constant.
Symmetries of space and time, and other types of symmetries, play a central role in modern theories of fundamental forces in nature.
Hypotheses and Experiments
Conservation laws, like all physical laws, are hypotheses based on observations and experiments. They cannot be proven but can be verified or disproved by experiments. An experiment whose result is in conformity with the law verifies or substantiates the law; it does not prove the law. On the other hand, a single experiment whose result goes against the law is enough to disprove it.
Symmetries of Nature
Conservation laws have a deep connection with the symmetries of nature. For example, the laws of nature do not change with time. If you perform an experiment in your laboratory today and repeat the same experiment (on the same objects under identical conditions) after a year, the results are bound to be the same. This symmetry of nature with respect to translation (i.e., displacement) in time is equivalent to the law of conservation of energy.
Similarly, space is homogeneous, and there is no intrinsically preferred location in the universe. The laws of nature are the same everywhere in the universe. This symmetry of the laws of nature with respect to translation in space gives rise to the conservation of linear momentum.
Notable Physicists and Their Contributions
The document also highlights the contributions of several notable physicists. For example, Ernest Rutherford is known for his nuclear model of the atom, Niels Bohr for his quantum model of the hydrogen atom, and C.V. Raman for his work on the inelastic scattering of light by molecules. These contributions have significantly advanced our understanding of the physical world.
Given below is a table showing some physicists from different countries of the world and their major contributions:
|Name||Country of Origin||Major Contribution/Discovery|
|Victor Francis Hess||Austria||Cosmic radiation|
|R.A. Millikan||U.S.A.||Measurement of electronic charge|
|Ernest Rutherford||New Zealand||Nuclear model of atom|
|Niels Bohr||Denmark||Nuclear model of an atom|
|C.V. Raman||India||Inelastic scattering of light by molecules|
|Louis Victor de Broglie||France||Wave nature of matter|
|M.N. Saha||India||Thermal ionisation|
|S.N. Bose||India||Quantum statistics|
|Wolfgang Pauli||Austria||Exclusion principle|
|Enrico Fermi||Italy||Controlled nuclear fission|
|Werner Heisenberg||Germany||Quantum mechanics; Uncertainty principle|
|Paul Dirac||U.K.||Relativistic theory of electron; Quantum statistics|
|Edwin Hubble||U.S.A.||Expanding universe|
|Ernest Orlando Lawrence||U.S.A.||Cyclotron|
|Hideki Yukawa||Japan||Theory of nuclear forces|
|Homi Jehangir Bhabha||India||Cascade process of cosmic radiation|
|Lev Davidovich Landau||Russia||Theory of condensed matter; Liquid helium|
|S. Chandrasekhar||India||Chandrasekhar limit, structure and evolution of stars|
|John Bardeen||U.S.A.||Transistors; Theory of superconductivity|
|C.H. Townes||U.S.A.||Maser; Laser|
|Abdus Salam||Pakistan||Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions|
These physicists have made significant contributions to various fields of physics, and their work continues to influence scientific thought and research today.