NCERT solution for Class 11 Biotechnology Chapter 1
Do you agree that your grandmother unknowingly practised a technique of biotechnology? Describe the technique. Solution
Yes our grandmother unknowingly practised a technique of biotechnology. It was the making of curd through fermentation. The technique of making curd is described below :-
Take 1000ml of milk. Warm/cool it to lukewarm temperature (~370C). The add teaspoon of curd and distribute it uniformly in I lit. Milk by stirring. Leave it for 4 hour. You will get curd.
This is due to the fermentation. In this process sugar gets converted into lactic acid by the action of lactic-acid bacteria (lactobacillus).
What are the two instruments Louis pasteur used to show the presence of lactic yeast and L-lactic acid? Solution
Two instruments which were used by Louis Pasteur were-
(1) Microscope – he showed the presence of lactic yeast which is agent for making curd.
(2) Polarimeter – he confirmed the presence of L-lactic acid.
Name four traditionally fermented food. Solution
Your traditionally fermented food are –
(1) Idli – Rice-black gram–steamed spongy cake
(2) Dosa – Rice-black gram-spongy pan cake
(3) Bhalle – Black gram-deep fried patties; snack
(4) Bhatura – Wheat-flat dup-fried, learned bread
Name some of the living systems that are being used for industrial application? Solution
Some of the living systems that are being used for industrial application are :-
Prokaryote: Eubacteria (unicellular)
Mycelial – Actinomycetes (streptomycin, Nocardia)
Fungi: Yeast Mould
Plant cells or tissues, organs
Animal cells or tissues, organ
List important applications of biotechnology in healthcare. Solution
Some important applications of biotechnology in healthcare are given below –
(1) Protein pharmaceuticals
(2) Vaccine and therapeutic agents
(3) Diagnostics (Protein – or DNA)
(4) Gene therapy
List the important applications of biotechnology in agriculture. Solution
Important applications of biotechnology in agriculture are-
(1) it is used for making biopesticides/ biofertilizers
(2) it is used in pharmaceutical production.
(3) it is used in making crop tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress.
Which was the first recombinant DNA- based product produced and marketed in india? Solution
The first recombinant DNA- based product produced and marketed in India is :-
(1) Hepatitis B vaccine