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# CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2022-2023

Here is the CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2022-2023

## CLASS XII (THEORY)

(Total Periods: 180)

Unit I: Electrostatics (Periods 25)

Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long
straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor(r (no derivation, formulae only).

Unit II: Current Electricity (Periods 22)

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.

Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors;temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchhoff ’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism (Periods 25)

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current carrying conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field;moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.
Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines

Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials, effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

(Periods 20)

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.

AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic Waves (Periods 4)

Need for displacement current.

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics (Periods 30)

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula.

Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror.

Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.

Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.

Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.

Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum..

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation (Periods 8)

Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light.

Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation.

Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei (Periods 18)

Alpha – particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels,
hydrogen spectrum.(qualitative treatment only).

Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force

Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices (Periods 18)

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n type, p-n junction
Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.

## Practical’s

Total Periods 60

Section A

Experiments

1. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material.
2. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.
3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge
4. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
5. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same
6. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance of figure of merit) into an ammeter and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
7. To find the frequency of the ac mains with a sonometer.

Activities

1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
2. To measure resistance, voltage (ac/dc), current (ac) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
1. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
2. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
3. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.

Section B

Experiments

1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
1. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
3. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
4. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between the angle of incidence and the angle of deviation.
5. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
6. To find the refractive index of a liquid using a concave mirror and a plane mirror.
7. To find the refractive index of a liquid using convex lens and plane mirror.
8. To draw the I-V characteristics curves of a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.

Activities

1. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
2. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor, (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors, (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED, (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or IC) is in working order.
1. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.
2. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
3. To observe polarization of light using two polaroid’s.
4. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
5. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
6. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given

Suggested Investigatory Projects

1. To study various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell depends.
2. To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in
(a) the power of the incandescent lamp, used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR (keeping all the lamps at a fixed distance).
(b) the distance of a incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR.
3. To find the refractive indices of (a) water (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror, an equiconvex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index) and an adjustable object needle.
4. To investigate the relation between the ratio of (i) output and input voltage and (ii) number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed transformer.
5. To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.
6. To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical Styrofoam (or pith) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb’s law.
7. To study the factor on which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.
8. To study the earth’s magnetic field using a compass needle -bar magnet by plotting magnetic field lines and tangent galvanometer

This completes the Class 12 Physics syllabus. You can download this also

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