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# Physics project for class 12

## Introduction to physics project for class 12

Physics investigatory projects for class 12 carry 3 Marks in the Final Examination.

Let us take a took at some important concept

## What is Science:

Our knowledge of the natural world and the process through which that knowledge is built

The process of science involves many layers of complexity, but the key points of that process are straightforward. There are many ways into the process
(a) New Technology
(b) Curiosity
(c) Practical problem
(d) Pleasant surprise(e.g., being hit on the head by the proverbial apple)
(e) Scientists often begin an investigation by tinkering, brainstorming, trying to make some new observations, chatting with colleagues about an idea, or doing some reading.

Scientific investigation is the main core of the process

## What is Scientific investigation

Scientific investigation is the way in which scientists and researchers use a systematic approach to answer questions about the world around us.
The scientific method is a systematic process that involves using measurable observations to formulate, test or modify a hypothesis. Finally, a hypothesis is a proposed explanation for some observed phenomenon, based on experience or research. Scientific investigation is what people like you and me use to develop better models and explanations for the world around them.
Steps for Scientific Investigation

(1)Observation :This is about observing the phenomenon in the natural world. Sometimes it is direct through our own eyes while sometimes it is through indirect method like tools. Some observations sometimes arise in surprising ways, as in the discovery of radioactivity, which was inspired by the observation that photographic plates (an early version of camera film) stored next to uranium salts were unexpectedly exposed. Sometimes interesting observations (and the investigations that follow) are suddenly made possible by the development of a new technology. For example, the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990 allowed astronomers to make deeper and more focused observations of our universe than were ever before possible.
(2) Asking questions: It’s important to ask the question so that it can be answered in a measurable way. Beginning the question with ‘What’, ‘How’, or ‘Why’ is a good start. The question should also be focused

(3) Hypothesis: which is the statement of relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable we would expect a proposed explanation for a fairly narrow set of phenomena, usually based on prior experience, scientific background knowledge, preliminary observations, and logic

(4) Experimentation/testing: You can think of scientific testing as occurring in two logical steps: (1) if the idea is correct, what would we expect to see, and (2) does that expectation match what we actually observe?. We have to identify all the variable. Create out the experimental procedure. Take the observation from the experiment. Take into account all the human error. Plot the graph and check if the hypothesis is good

## Performing Physics Projects for Class 12

Investigatory projects are meant to be a pleasure-cum-work-cum-knowledge gathering exercise. It is a type of experimental exercise performed with a scientific attitude by the students

1. Selection of topic: For the selection of the topic for the project, you work and read different chapters of your syllabus and also consult scientific literature, magazines, newspapers, go and use google, etc. Then select the topic of your interest. You must also consult the teacher about this and choose the topic accordingly
2. Planning of the project:
Collect all possibly available information about the topic of the project. Do some research on the project subject. Try to find out every detail about the subject.

Jot down the things that you require in order to create your project.

Prepare a rough outline of the experimental work of the project. Figure out methods of presenting it by discussing it with your family or your classmates.
3. Experimentation for the project:
Plan and conduct the experimental work with precision so that you are sure to get the

correct results. The following points should be kept in mind while performing the experiments for the project work.

1. Prepare the apparatus with care
2. Collect data with honesty and utmost care. Record only your observations and data.
3. Repeat the experiment several times and take the average of the results of all the experiments.
4. Compare your results with those available in the reference books.
5. Discuss your results in the light of available information about the project and draw out a meaningful conclusion.
6. Make use of histograms, graphs, photographs, diagrams or models to support your observations and conclusions.

## How to write the class 12th physics project

Presentation always matters, so the write-up for the project should be good and presentable. The project report should be written in the following sequence:

Title  – Name of the project.

Index – List down all the segments on the project report

Certification – Get the certificate properly signed by your project teacher

Acknowledgment – Acknowledge the guidance, help, and assistance rendered by your teachers, parents, and friends by expressing sincere gratitude and thanks to them in the beginning.

Introduction – Information collected from various sources related to the topic.
Requirements – Materials required for experimental work.
Procedure – Write details of the experimental work you have performed.
Observations – Record your observations/data in the form of tables, histograms, graphs, photographs, etc.
Results / Conclusion – Give an analysis of the data and compare your results with those available in the literature and draw conclusions.
References/Bibliography – Give a list of books, magazines/journals, and internet sites you have consulted during the course of your project.

### Tips for Writing:

1. Clarity and Conciseness: Be clear and to the point. Avoid unnecessary jargon.
2. Logical Flow: Ensure your report has a logical flow from introduction to conclusion.
3. Visuals: Use diagrams, graphs, and pictures to complement your text. Make sure they are well-labeled and referenced in the text.
4. Proofreading: Check for grammatical errors and typos.
5. Citations: Properly cite all your sources to avoid plagiarism.
6. Engagement: Try to make your report engaging. Show your enthusiasm and understanding of the topic.

Remember, the key to a successful physics project is not just in conducting the experiment but also in how well you communicate your process and findings. Your report should effectively convey all aspects of your work to the reader.

## List of Physics Projects for Class 12

(1)To study various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell depends.

(2)To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in
(a) the power of the incandescent lamp, used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR (keeping all the lamps at a fixed distance).
(b) the distance of a incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR.

(3)To find the refractive indices of (a) water (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror, an equiconvex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index) and an adjustable object needle.

(4)To investigate the relation between the ratio of (i) output and input voltage and (ii) number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed transformer.

(5)To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.

(6)To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical Styrofoam (or pith) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb’s law.

(7)To study the factor on which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.

(8)To study the earth’s magnetic field using a compass needle -bar magnet by plotting magnetic field lines and tangent galvanometer.

(9) To construct a switch using a transistor and draw the graph between the input and output voltage and mark the cut-off, saturation, and active regions.

(10) To study the earth’s magnetic field using a tangent galvanometer.

(11) To Demonstrate the Production of Induced EMF in a coil due to the movement of (i) a magnet toward s and away from it. (ii) a similar coil carrying current toward and away from it.

(12) Count of Calories

(13) To experimentally determine the time constant (t) of a slow RC circuit and verify the value using the actual formula. • To calculate the maximum charge attained by the capacitor, i.e. the charge attained by it in steady-state.

(14) Light Reflection and Refraction off Liquids

(15) To Study the Variation of Electrical Resistance

(16) To Calculate the Specific Heat Capacity of Water

(17) The Solar Heating and Night Cooling of Surfaces

(18) Creating Electric Current with a Magnet

(19) Photo-electrochemical Cell

(20)Seebeck Effect : Explore the Seebeck effect by creating a simple thermoelectric generator and study how the temperature difference between two dissimilar metals or semiconductors can generate electricity

When selecting a project, consider the resources you have available and the feasibility of conducting experiments. It’s also important to follow safety guidelines, especially when working with electricity, chemicals, or heat. Your project should ideally include a hypothesis, a detailed method for conducting your experiments, data collection, analysis of results, and a conclusion. This will give you a comprehensive understanding of the topic and a strong foundation for your report or presentation

Lots of Materials and help for these projects can be found here

More Resources from the Web
Project description from CBSE

I hope you like the content of the physics project for class 12. Please do provide feedback on it

### 4 thoughts on “Physics project for class 12”

1. Which is the best physics project books? how to buy online

1. I do not know about any such book if it exists. If you are trying to set up an experiment you can conveniently order stuff from local laboratory supplier or from amazon.in.

2. It was really good content. very helpful for everybody. understanding blog.

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