Plasma and Bose- Einstein Condensate

Plasma and Bose- Einstein Condensate:

Plasma and Bose- Einstein Condensate are two more states of mater apart from three other discusse dpreviously.
Scientists now say that there are actually five states of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma and Bose- Einstein Condensate.


  • Plasma is a mixture of free electrons and ions. Plasma occurs naturally in the stars (including the sun).
  • Inside the stars, the temperature is so high that the atoms break up. Some of the electrons break away from the atoms converting the rest of atoms into electrically charged particles called ions. This mixture of free electrons and ions in a star is called plasma.

  • The sun and other stars glow because of the presence of plasma in them.
  • Plasma can also be made on the earth by passing electricity through gases at very low pressure taking in a glass tube. The fluorescent tubes and neon sign bulbs form plasma when they are switched on.

Bose- Einstein Condensate

  • In 1920 Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose had done some calculations for a fifth state of matter. Building on it calculations, Albert Einstein predicted a new state of matter- the Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC).
  • The BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density (about one –hundred- thousandth the density of normal air) to super low temperature.

Test your Knowlegde

Fill in the blanks
1) __________________ gas can be liquefied by applying high pressure and lowering the temperature.
2) Decreasing the pressure and raising the temperature can change the state of __________________.
3) Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is stored under high __________________.
4) The process of a liquid changing into vapour (or gas) even its boiling point is called evaporation.
5) The wet clothes dry due to __________________ of water present in them.
6) The evaporation of a liquid depends mainly on the factors ______,Surface area, Humidity and __________________ speed
7) If the same liquid  is kept in a test tube and in a china dish, then the liquid  kept in the _____ evaporate more rapidly.
8)  The amount of water present in air is represented by a term called _____
9) The cooling caused by __________________ is based on the fact that when a liquid evaporates, it draws or takes the latent heat of vaporization from anything which it touches.
10) During hot __________________ days, water is usually kept in an earthen pot (called pitcher or matka) to keep it cool.
11)it is recommended to wear ______ in hot summer days to keep cool and comfortable.
12) ______________ vapor comes into the air from the evaporation of __________________ present in ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.
13) ______________ vapor is alsogiven out by plants by the process of transpiration.
14) Plasma is a mixture of ____ and ____
15) BEC stands for ________________

Class 9 Maths Class 9 Science