Question 1. Name an IUD that you would recommend to promote the cervix hostility to the sperms? Answers
Hormone- releasing IUDs like LNG -20 or Progestasert.
Question 2. State one reason why breast -feeding the baby acts as a natural contraceptive for the mother? Answers
During the period of breast-feeding, ovulation and other events of menstrual cycle do not occur, hence, the chances of conception are almost nil.
Question 3. Mention one positive and one negative application of amniocentesis? Answers
Any genetic disorder of the foetus can be detected.
It is misused for finding the sex of the foetus followed by female foeticide.
Question 4. What was the old name of the RCH programme of today? When was it initiated in India? Answers
Family Planning Programme initiated in 1951.
Question 5. Why is the period between day 10 and 17 of the menstrual cycle, called 'fertile period'? Answers
Ovulation occur during this period and chances of fertilization are high; hence this period is called 'fertile period'.
Question 6. State the consequence if IMR will increase and MMR will decrease in a population? Answers
It will not cause any significant change in growth rate.
Short Answer Type Questions (2 Marks)
Question 7. What do oral pills contain and how do they act as effective contraceptives? Answers
Oral pills contain small doses of progestogens or progestogen-estrogen combination.
They functions as follows:
(a)They inhibit ovulation.
(b)They inhibit implantation.
(c)They alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent/retard the entry of sperms.
Question 8. Why is 'Saheli' considered an effective contraceptive for women to space children? Answers
Saheli is an oral pill:
(a) It is non-steroidal preparation.
(b)It is once- a -week pill.
(c)It has high contraceptive value.
(d) It has fewer side effects than other oral contraceptives.
Question 9. Why is CuT considered a good contraceptive device to space children? Answers
CuT is an intrauterine device (IUD) and function as follows:
(a) The copper ions released by them suppress sperm motility and the fertilizing capacity of the sperms.
(b)They increase the phagocytosis of sperm within the uterus.
Question 10. All reproductive tract infections are STDs, but not all STDs are reproductive infections? Justify with an example? Answers
All reproductive tract infections, (RTIs) such as syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes etc.,are transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected person; hence they are all STDs.
But there are diseases like AIDS, hepatitis-B, etc. which are also transmitted through sexual intercourse, that is they are STDs, but they do not specifically affect the reproductive organs; hence they are not RTIs.
Question 11. The Government of India has raised the marriageable age of females to 18 years and of males to 21 years. Suggest any two more measures adopted by the government for the purpose? Answers
The other methods include:
(a)Motivation to have small families by using various contraceptive methods.
(b)Advertisement in the media and posters showing a happy couple with two children with a slogan 'Hum Do, Hamare do'.
(c)Incentives given to the couples with small families
Question 12. The procedure of GIFT involves the transfer of the female gamete to the fallopian tube. Can the gamete be transferred to the uterus to achieve the same results? Explain? Answers
(a) No, the gamete cannot be transferred to the uterus.
(b)In this method, the ovum collected from a donor female is transferred to the fallopian tube of another woman.
(c)The ovum has to be fertilized by the sperm of the woman's husband; the fallopian tube is the site of fertilization in a human female.
(d)The gamete (ovum), if introduced into the uterus cannot move up to the fallopian tube, the site of fertilization.
Question 13. How is IUT different from IUI? Answers
It is the method of embryo transfer in ART. It is a method of artificial insemination.
The embryo with more than 8-blastomeres is transferred into the uterus of a female who cannot conceive but can provide suitable conditions for embryo development
The semen from the husband or a healthy donor is introduced into the uterus for fertilization and further development; when the male partner is unable to inseminate or the sperm count is low in the ejaculate.
Question 14. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why? Answers
An ideal contraceptive should be effective as well as reversible. Once the gonads are removed, they cannot be replaced when necessary; so it cannot be considered as a method of contraception.
Question 15. Reproductive health refers only to Healthy reproductive functions? Comment? Answers
No, reproductive health refers to the total well being in all aspects of reproduction that is physical, emotional , psychological and social.
Question 16. Why is ZIFT a boon to childless couples? Explain the procedure? Answers
Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT) is a boon to the couple where the female cannot conceive naturally.
In this method fertilization is carried out in vitro (in the laboratory conditions) and the zygote or early embryo so, formed (with up to 8-blastomeres), is transferred into the fallopian tube.
Question 17. A pregnant human female was advised to undergo MTP. It was diagnosed by a doctor that the foetus she is carrying has developed from a zygote formed by an XX-egg fertilised by Y-carrying sperm. Why was she advised to undergo MTP? Answers
Because the foetus she is caring has a chromosomal abnormality that is XXY, that is why she advised to undergo MTP.
Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)
Question 18. If implementation of better techniques and new strategies are required to provide more efficient care in assistants to people, then why is there a statutory ban on amniocentesis? Write the use of this technique and give reason to justify the ban? Answers
Amniocentesis is on such technique that helps to determine any chromosomal abnormalities or genetic disorder and sex as well as fetal infection, by using minute amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the foetus.
Though implementation of better techniques and new strategies are required to provide more efficient care and assistance to people, there is a statutory ban on amniocentesis to legally check female foeticide. This ban is necessary as this sex determination technique has been misused to kill girl child before birth.
The ban is justified to prevent female foeticide which could lead to change in sex ratio of the population.
Question 19. Explain how surrogacy is helpful in case of an infertile woman? Answers
Surrogacy is a practice in which a woman (a surrogate mother) bears a child for a couple unable to produce children; usually because the file is infertile or unable to carry a pregnancy to full term.
The surrogate mother is impregnated with the use of artificial insemination or through the implantation of the embryo produced by in vitro fertilization.
Question 20. The present population growth rate in India is alarming. Suggest ways to check it? Answers
Ways to check population growth rate are:
(a)By educating people about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth.
(b)By spreading awareness about various contraceptive measures available now a days