Section A (1 Mark)

1. What phenomenon is used for changing genes by in vitro methods?
2. What was the first DNA molecule produced in 1980?
3. What will you call a population of genetically identical cells?
4. Which enzymes are called molecular scissors?
5. How is the action of exonuclease different from that of endonuclease?
6. Why is it essential to have 'selectable marker' in a cloning vector?
7. Who was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of restriction enzymes in 1989?
8. What do DNA ligases do?
9. What is the name of the hybrid factor of phage lambda and plasmid?
10. Explain briefly the cosmid?

Section B (2 Marks)

11. What is Recombinant DNA technology?
12. What is restriction enzyme?
13. Who constructed first Artificial Recombinant DNA molecule and how?
14. What is a cloning vector?
15. What is a recognition sequence?
16. Write two distinguishing features of pBR322 and pUC19 vectors?
17. Write function of Alkaline phosphatase?
18. Explain briefly the palindromic sequences?
19. Name for medically useful Recombinant proteins?
20. State how has Agrobacterium tumefaciens been made useful cloning vector to transfer DNA to plant cells?

Section C (3 Marks)

21. What are vectors? List the properties of a good vector. Name three vectors used in bacteria and their properties?
22. Why do bacteria produce restriction endonuclease and how do they protect their own DNA from its action?
23. Compare plasmid with bacteriophages as a vector for cloning?
24. Write brief notes on restriction enzymes?
25. What is Ori? State its function. What is its importance during cloning of a vector?

Section D (5 Marks)

26. (a) What are restriction enzymes? How can you generate cohesive or blunt ends in DNA using these?
(b) Mention the two possible ways by which cohesive ends of a vector can be prevented from ligation?
(c) Write types of restriction enzymes and cleavage by restriction enzymes?
27. What are cloning vectors? Give an illustrated account of different bacterial plasmid as cloning vectors?
28. What is Recombinant DNA technology? Write the basic tools of biotechnology?
29. Mention the importance of gel electrophoresis in biotechnology? Explain the process of this technique?
30. (a) Draw the diagram of pBR 322 and pUC19?
(b) What are shuttle vectors and expression vectors?
(c) Explain the role of artificial chromosome YAC and BAC in biotechnology?

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