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Living organisms and their surroundings Extra Questions




Question 1
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
(i)How are cactus adapted to survive in a desert?
(ii)List some common characteristics of living organisms.
(iii)What is cell? Who coined the term “cell”? Name the instrument used to observe cells.
(iv)What are the adaptations in the frog?
(v)What is arboreal habitat?
(vi)What do you mean by acclimatization?
(vii)Differentiate between plants and animals.

Answer

(i)Cactus are adapted to survive in a desert as they have

  • No leaves or spiny leaves to prevent water loss through transpiration.
  • Stem is modified in such a way that it performs photosynthesis and conserves water.
  • Their roots go very deep into the soil for absorbing water.
(ii)some common characteristics are respiration, nutrition, growth, excretion, respond to stimuli, movement, reproduction & death.
(iii) The cell (meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life;
Robert Hooke; Microscope.
(iv)Frogs have the following adaptations:
(a)They have webbed feet that help them to swim in water.
(b)They have long and strong back legs that help them in hopping on the land for catching their prey.
(c)Their skin is always moist that helps in breathing through the skin.
(v)Arboreal habitats are the places in trees where organisms are able to live and feed. These habitats can include the roots of trees, the canopies of rainforests, the branches of deciduous and coniferous trees, the leaves of trees, and even holes within the tree. e.g., all birds, such as the crow, sparrow, etc.
(vi)The small changes which take place in the body of a single organism over short periods to overcome small problems due to changes in the surroundings are called acclimatization.
(vii)
Green plants have green pigment called chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is absent in animal
Plants synthesize their own food
Animal can not
Mostly fixed and not free to move
Free to move from place to place



Question 2
HOTS
(i)“Stems of plants are positively phototropic.” Identify the stimulus and the response.
(ii)Why do animals stop growing after a certain period of time?
(iii)‘Growing sheep and growing pile of Garbage’. Is the mode of growth same?

Answer

(i)Stimulus – sunlight; Response – bending of the stem towards sunlight.
(ii)Animals stop growing after sometime as they undergo the process of development that makes their bodies more complex and mature.
(iii)No, the mode of growth is not same. In case of a Sheep, the growth is physiological, there is both internal and external growth & it’s a complex process taking place slowly on its own. While in case of Garbage, though we use the term growth, it is actually just an increase in amount of garbage that we keep on adding to the existing one.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION

Question 3
What is habitat? Define terrestrial habitat. List four terrestrial habitat.

Answer

  • A habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
  • The plants and the animals that lives on land are said to live in terrestrial habitat.
  • Grassland habitat, Desert habitat, Forest Habitat, Tundra habitat.


Question 4
a. How is a camel adapted to live in its habitat?
b. What are Xerophytes plant?

Answer

(a)

  • A camel can drink up to 40 liters of water at one time. This water is stored in its body.
  • The camel can go without water for several days.
  • The camel’s feet have leathery soles for walking on soft, shifting sand. Camels can close
  • Their nostrils during a dust storm to protect themselves from sand.
  • The hump of a camel stores fat which serves as a food store. This enables the camel to go for Days without any food.
  • The body of a camel can tolerate high temperatures.
  • The long, thick eyelashes of the camel protect their eyes from sand.
(b)Xerophytes are plant adapted to life in a dry or physiologically dry habitat (salt marsh, saline soil, or acid bog) by means of mechanisms to prevent water loss or to store available water. Succulents (plants that store water) such as cacti and agaves have thick, fleshy stems or leaves.


Question 5
a. What is excretion?
b. Do plants also excrete?
c. What is reproduction?

Answer

  1. The process of getting rid of the waste by the living organisms is known as excretion.
  2. Yes, plants also excrete. Plants need to excrete excess carbon dioxide and oxygen. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of aerobic respiration in plant cells. Oxygen is a waste product of photosynthesis.
  3. The process by which living organisms produce more of their own kind is called reproduction.


Question 6
a. What is an aquatic habitat?
b. Explain the features of fish which help it to adapt to live in water.

Answer

(a)

  1. The organisms that live and breed in water are called aquatic organisms and their habitat is called aquatic habitat. For e.g.: pond habitat, sea habitat, river habitat
  2. The features of fish which help it to adapt to live in water are
(b)
  • The shape of the fish is streamlined which help in the movement.
  • They have gills which help in breathing in water.
  • The slippery scales/skin on their bodies to protect them.
  • They have flat fins and tails which help them to swim, change direction and to keep the body balanced.


Question 7
Name the animal shown in the picture given below. Name & define the habitat in which it lives. Name two other animals that belongs to the habitat.

Answer

  • Penguin
  • Polar habitat
  • Polar habitat: Polar habitats are located at the very top and very bottom of the Earth. They are cold, windy and have a lot of snow and ice.
  • Polar Bear/Walrus/Arctic Fox/Arctic Wolves/Seals


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