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Understanding Quadrilaterals





In this page we will explain the topics for the chapter 3 of Understanding Quadrilaterals Class 8 Maths.We have given quality notes and video to explain various things so that students can benefits from it and learn maths in a fun and easy manner, Hope you like them and do not forget to like , social share and comment at the end of the page.

What is Closed curve and Open curve

Closed curve is a figure in the plane with no end points. It completely encloses an area
 
Closed curve
Closed curve  
 
Open curve is a figure in the place with end points
 
open curve
 

What are polygons

A simple closed curve made up of only line segments is called a polygon.
polygons
 
polygons

Classification of polygons

 
We classify polygons according to the number of sides( or vertices)
Number of sides
Classification
3
Triangle
4
Quadrilateral
5
Pentagon
6
Hexagon
7
Heptagon
8
Octagon
9
Nonagon
 

Diagonal in Polygons

A diagonal is a line segment connecting two non-consecutive vertices of a polygon
Diagonal in a Polygon  
 
 

Convex and Concave Polygons

Convex Polygon
We have all the diagonals inside the Polygon
Convex Polygon
 
Concave Polygon
We don’t have all the diagonals inside the Polygon
Concave Polygon
We will be concentrating on Convex Polygon in this chapter

Regular and Irregular Polygons

A regular polygon is both ‘equiangular’ and ‘equilateral’.
So all the sides and angles should be same
a) So square is a regular polygon but rectangle is not
b) Equilateral triangle is a regular polygon

Angle Sum in the Polygons

The Sum of the angles in the polygon is given by
=(n-2) × 1800
For Triangle, n=3
So Total =1800
For quadrilateral, n=4
So total =3600
 
Example
Find the value of angle x
Example on angle sum of quadilaterals
Solution
We know in the quadrilateral, sum of interior angle is 3600
So
50+130+120+x=360
x=600
Watch this tutorial on how to solve angle problems in quadrilateral

Sum of the Measures of the Exterior Angles of a Polygon

The sum of the measures of the external angles of any polygon is 360°.
This property is very useful is finding number of sides of the polygons

Example:
Find the number of sides of a regular polygon whose each exterior angle
has a measure of 60°.
Solution: Total measure of all exterior angles = 360°
Measure of each exterior angle = 60°
Therefore, the number of exterior angles =360/60=6
The polygon has 6 sides.
Watch this tutorial on how to solve exterior angles problems

What is Quadrilaterals

A quadrilateral is a four sides Polygon. It has four angles
 
Understanding Quadrilaterals
 
Angle Sum Property
Sum of angles of the Quadrilaterals =3600
Exterior Angle Property
Sum of exterior angles of the Quadrilaterals =3600

Kinds of Quadrilaterals

 
Kind of Quadrilaterals

Trapezium


Trapezium is a quadrilateral with a pair of parallel sides.
Trapezium a type of quadrilateral
 

Isosceles trapezium


Trapezium when non-parallel sides of it are of equal length
 

Kite


It is a quadrilaterals having exactly two distinct consecutive pairs of sides of equal length
Here ABCD is a Kite
Kite a type of quadrilateral
AB=BC
AD=CD
 

Parallelogram


It is a quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel.
Parallelogram a type of quadrilateral
Here ABCD is a Parallelogram
AD || BC, AB ||CD
Property 1
The opposite sides of a parallelogram are of equal length.
AD=BC , AB=CD
Property 2
The opposite angles of a parallelogram are of equal measure
∠A= ∠C , ∠B= ∠D
Property 3
The adjacent angles in a parallelogram are supplementary.
∠A+ ∠D=180 , ∠B+ ∠C=180
Property 4
The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other


Example
Example on Understanding Quadilaterals chapter
Find the value of the angles x,y,z in the parallelograms given above
Solution
Angle B and Angle D are opposite angle and are equal
So y=1000
Angle C and Angle B are adjacent angle and are supplementary
So x+100=180
x=800
Angle A and Angle C are opposite angle and are equal
So z=800

Rhombus


A rhombus is a quadrilateral with sides of equal length
A rhombus has all the properties of a parallelogram and also that of a kite.
rhombus 
 
Special Property
The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular bisectors of one another

Rectangle


A rectangle is a parallelogram with equal angles
rectangle 
Property 1
Each angle is of 900
Property 2
The diagonals of a rectangle are of equal length

Square


A square is a rectangle with equal sides.
So it has the same property of Rectangle in addition of 4 equal sides
Square :A equal sides quadilateral
Property
The diagonals of a square are perpendicular bisectors of each other.
 
Watch this tutorial for understanding quadrilaterals


 

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Class 8 Maths Class 8 Science
Reference Books for class 8 Math

Given below are the links of some of the reference books for class 8 Math.

  1. Mathematics Foundation Course for JEE/Olympiad : Class 8 This book can take students maths skills further. Only buy if child is interested in Olympiad/JEE foundation courses.
  2. Mathematics for Class 8 by R S Aggarwal Detailed Mathematics book to clear basics and concepts. I would say it is a must have book for class 8 student.
  3. Pearson Foundation Series (IIT -JEE / NEET) Physics, Chemistry, Maths & Biology for Class 8 (Main Books) | PCMB Combo : These set of books could help your child if he aims to get extra knowledge of science and maths. These would be helpful if child wants to prepare for competitive exams like JEE/NEET. Only buy if you can provide help to the child while studying.
  4. Reasoning Olympiad Workbook - Class 8 :- Reasoning helps sharpen the mind of child. I would recommend students practicing reasoning even though they are not appearing for Olympiad.

You can use above books for extra knowledge and practicing different questions.







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