physicscatalyst.com logo




Classification Of elements | Mendeleevís Periodic Law





Classification of elements

There is need to classify the elements present in the nature so that we can easily study the properties of the elements and predict the new elements
The arrangement of elements in a systematic way such that similar elements falls within the same group is called the classification of elements

History of Classification Of elements

 DOBEREINER’S TRAIDS

            He arranged elements with similar properties in groups of three in such a way that mass     of middle element is the average mass of 1st and 3rd element.
Triad
Atomics Masses
Arithmetic mean of first and second elements
Cl, Br, I
35.5,80,127
(35.5+127)/2=81.25
Ca, Sr, Ba
40,88,137
(40+137)/2=88.5
 
However, this law of triads can be applied to limited number of elements so it was dismissed
 

The Law of Octaves

In 1865, Newlands arrange the elements in increasing order of atomic masses and found that eight elements have similar properties to the first element. The relationship was just like the eighth note in an octave of music
Element
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Atomic Mass
7
9
11
12
14
16
19
Elements
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Atomic Mass
23
24
27
29
31
32
35.5
Element
K
Ca
 
 
 
 
 
Atomic Mass
39
40
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
However, this law cannot be applied beyond Calcium so it was also dismissed
 

Mendeleev’s Periodic Law

It states that the properties of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses.
Based on this, Mendeleev’s constructed a periodic table. In the table, elements are arranged in increasing order of the atomic masses in horizontal rows and vertical columns such that elements with similar properties occupies the same vertical column. Mendeleev’s relies of broad range of physical and chemical properties to classify the elements
He also found if atomic mass order is strictly followed , then some of elements does not fit in with this scheme of classification. He ignored the order of atomic masses thinking it could be wrong because of measurement and arrange the similar elements in the same group
Mendeleev’s Periodic table
Advantages of Mendeleev Periodic Table
Mendeleev left few gaps for the elements yet to be discovered. Thus, if a certain new element is discovered, it can be placed in a new group without disturbing any existing group.
Disadvantages of Mendeleev Periodic Table
a) He was unable to locate hydrogen in the periodic table.
b) Increase in atomic mass was not regular while moving from one element to another. Hence, the number of elements yet to be discovered was not predictable.
c) isotopes of elements which violated Mendeleev’s periodic law.



link to this page by copying the following text


Class 11 Maths Class 11 Physics Class 11 Chemistry

link to us