# Modern Periodic Table | s,p,d,f Blocks Elements

## Modern Periodic Law

Moseley, the English physicist showed that atomic number is more fundamental property of an element than its atomic mass. Therefore, the position of an element in the periodic table depends on its atomic number than its atomic mass.
So, Mendeleev Periodic Table was modified and it is called now Modern Periodic Table which states that
“The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic functions of their atomic numbers”
A modern version which is called Long Form of the Periodic Table is most widely used and accepted

Here are the features
1) Horizontal rows are called period. They were called series in Mendeleev Periodic Table. There are altogether 7 periods in the Periodic table
2) Vertical columns are called groups. Elements have similar outer electronic configuration are arranged in same groups. There are total 18 groups numbered 1 to 18.
All elements in a group have same properties in general.
Atomic no. & atomic size increases on going down the group (due to increase in no. of shells)
18th group has insert gases.
3) The period corresponds to highest principle quantum number(n) of the elements in the period. The number of elements in the period is equal to the number of electrons which can be accommodated in the orbitals belonging to that electron shell
 Period Highest principle quantum number(n) or Principal Valence Shell Total electrons possible Number of elements 1 1 2(1s) 1 2 2 8(2s, 2p) 8 3 3 8(3s, 3p) 8 4 4 18(4s,3d,4p) 18 5 5 18(5s,4d,5p) 18 6 6 32(6s,4f,5d,6p) 32 7 7 32(7s,5f,6d,7p) 32(incomplete)

4) Within a period, electron is filled in same valence shells.
5) Within a period, atomic size decreases due to increase in effective nuclear charge.

## NOMENCLATURE of ELEMENTS WITH Z> 100

Here is the notation of IUPAC nomenclature of elements
 Digit Name Abbreviation 0 Nil n 1 Un u 2 Bi b 3 Tri t 4 Quad q 5 Pent P 6 Hex h 7 Sept s 8 Oct o 9 Enn e

Systematic Name in IUPAC is written as follow
a) The name is above table  of the various digits are written together in the order of which makes the atomic number
b) Finally ‘ium; is added at the end of the word
Example
1. Atomic no. 109
Symbol: Mt (Meitnerium)
IUPAC Name: -
Unn nil enn ium = Unnnilennium
2. Atomic no. 101
Symbol: Md
101
Unn nil unnium
3. Atomic no. 106
IUPAC Name: unnnilhexium
4) Atomic no: 103
Name: Lawrencium
103
Unn nil Trium

## Electronic Configuration and Type Of elements

The elements in vertical column in the periodic tables called group shows similar chemical properties.
The similar properties are present as they have same type of electron distribution in the outermost shell.
We can classify it into four blocks

## S – Block Elements

• General Electronic configuration  is  ns1-2
• This block is situated at the extreme left of the periodic table and contains elements of group 1 and 2. Group I elements are known as alkali metals. Group II elements are known as Alkali earth metal.
• These elements are soft metals.
• They have low melting point and boiling point.
• They are highly reactive.
• Most of them give characteristics colors to the flame.
• They generally form ionic compounds.
• They are good conductors of heat and electricity.

## P – Block Elements

• General electronic configuration is ns2 np1-6
• This block is situated at the extreme right of the periodic table and contains elements of groups 13,14,15,16,17 and 18
• These compounds generally form covalent Bonds.
• They show variable oxidation state.
• They reactivity of element decreases down the group.
• Metallic character increaser down the group.
• On moving left to right in a period the metallic characters increase.

## D – Block Elements

• General Electronic Configuration is ns0-2 (n – 1) d1-10
• These are the elements from group 3-12 in the center of the periodic table
• These are all metals.
• They have high melting and boiling point.
• These compounds are generally paramagnetic in nature.
• These are generally used as catalyst.
• These generally form coloured lens and have variable oxidation stage.
• The elements of d-block are called d-transition elements

## F – Block Elements

• General configuration – ns2 (n – 1) d 0-1 (n – 2) f 1-14
• Lanthanoids series General Electronic Configuration – 6s2 5d0-1 4f 1-14
• Actinoids Series General Electronic Configuration – 7s2 6d0-1 5f1-14 These two series of elements are called inner transition elements
• Lanthanoid consist of elements from Ce58 to Lu71.
• Actinoid series consist of element from Th90 to Lr103
• All the elements are metals and properties are quite similar.
• Elements of actinoid series after uranium are radioactive and known as transuranium elements

## 118 elements and their symbols with Atomic Numbers

 Elements Symbol Atomic Number Actinium Ac 89 Aluminum Al 13 Americium Am 95 Antimony Sb 51 Argon Ar 18 Arsenic As 33 Astatine At 85 Barium Ba 56 Berkelium Bk 97 Beryllium Be 4 Bismuth Bi 83 Bohrium Bh 107 Boron B 5 Bromine Br 35 Cadmium Cd 48 Calcium Ca 20 Californium Cf 98 Carbon C 6 Cerium Ce 58 Cesium Cs 55 Chlorine Cl 17 Chromium Cr 24 Cobalt Co 27 Copernicium Cn 112 Copper Cu 29 Curium Cm 96 Darmstadtium Ds 110 Dubnium Db 105 Dysprosium Dy 66 Einsteinium Es 99 Erbium Er 68 Europium Eu 63 Fermium Fm 100 Flerovium Fl 114 Fluorine F 9 Francium Fr 87 Gadolinium Gd 64 Gallium Ga 31 Germanium Ge 32 Gold Au 79 Hafnium Hf 72 Hassium Hs 108 Helium He 2 Holmium Ho 67 Hydrogen H 1 Indium In 49 Iodine I 53 Iridium Ir 77 Iron Fe 26 Krypton Kr 36 Lanthanum La 57 Lawrencium Lr 103 Lead Pb 82 Lithium Li 3 Livermorium Lv 116 Lutetium Lu 71 Magnesium Mg 12 Manganese Mn 25 Meitnerium Mt 109 Mendelevium Md 101 Mercury Hg 80 Molybdenum Mo 42 Moscovium Mc 115 Neodymium Nd 60 Neon Ne 10 Neptunium Np 93 Nickel Ni 28 Nihonium Nh 113 Niobium Nb 41 Nitrogen N 7 Nobelium No 102 Oganesson Og 118 Osmium Os 76 Oxygen O 8 Palladium Pd 46 Phosphorus P 15 Platinum Pt 78 Plutonium Pu 94 Polonium Po 84 Potassium K 19 Praseodymium Pr 59 Promethium Pm 61 Protactinium Pa 91 Radium Ra 88 Radon Rn 86 Rhenium Re 75 Rhodium Rh 45 Roentgenium Rg 111 Rubidium Rb 37 Ruthenium Ru 44 Rutherfordium Rf 104 Samarium Sm 62 Scandium Sc 21 Seaborgium Sg 106 Selenium Se 34 Silicon Si 14 Silver Ag 47 Sodium Na 11 Strontium Sr 38 Sulfur S 16 Tantalum Ta 73 Technetium Tc 43 Tellurium Te 52 Tennessine Ts 117 Terbium Tb 65 Thallium Tl 81 Thorium Th 90 Thulium Tm 69 Tin Sn 50 Titanium Ti 22 Tungsten W 74 Uranium U 92 Vanadium V 23 Xenon Xe 54 Ytterbium Yb 70 Yttrium Y 39 Zinc Zn 30 Zirconium Zr 40