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Modern Periodic Table | s,p,d,f Blocks Elements





Modern Periodic Law

Moseley, the English physicist showed that atomic number is more fundamental property of an element than its atomic mass. Therefore, the position of an element in the periodic table depends on its atomic number than its atomic mass.
So, Mendeleev Periodic Table was modified and it is called now Modern Periodic Table which states that
“The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic functions of their atomic numbers”
A modern version which is called Long Form of the Periodic Table is most widely used and accepted
 
Modern Periodic Table
Here are the features
1) Horizontal rows are called period. They were called series in Mendeleev Periodic Table. There are altogether 7 periods in the Periodic table
2) Vertical columns are called groups. Elements have similar outer electronic configuration are arranged in same groups. There are total 18 groups numbered 1 to 18.
All elements in a group have same properties in general.
Atomic no. & atomic size increases on going down the group (due to increase in no. of shells)
 18th group has insert gases.
3) The period corresponds to highest principle quantum number(n) of the elements in the period. The number of elements in the period is equal to the number of electrons which can be accommodated in the orbitals belonging to that electron shell
Period
Highest principle quantum number(n) or Principal Valence Shell
Total electrons possible
Number of elements
1
1
2(1s)
1
2
2
8(2s, 2p)
8
3
3
8(3s, 3p)
8
4
4
18(4s,3d,4p)
18
5
5
18(5s,4d,5p)
18
6
6
32(6s,4f,5d,6p)
32
7
7
32(7s,5f,6d,7p)
32(incomplete)
 
4) Within a period, electron is filled in same valence shells.
5) Within a period, atomic size decreases due to increase in effective nuclear charge.
 

NOMENCLATURE of ELEMENTS WITH Z> 100

Here is the notation of IUPAC nomenclature of elements
Digit
Name
Abbreviation
0
 Nil
n
1
 Un
u
2
 Bi                   
b
3
 Tri      
t
4                                 
Quad
q
5
 Pent                 
P
6
 Hex                
h
7
 Sept                
s
8
 Oct
o
9
 Enn
e
 
Systematic Name in IUPAC is written as follow
a) The name is above table  of the various digits are written together in the order of which makes the atomic number
b) Finally ‘ium; is added at the end of the word
Example
1. Atomic no. 109
Symbol: Mt (Meitnerium)
IUPAC Name: -
Unn nil enn ium = Unnnilennium
2. Atomic no. 101         
Symbol: Md                  
101
Unn nil unnium             
3. Atomic no. 106
IUPAC Name: unnnilhexium
4) Atomic no: 103
Name: Lawrencium
103
Unn nil Trium

Electronic Configuration and Type Of elements

The elements in vertical column in the periodic tables called group shows similar chemical properties.
The similar properties are present as they have same type of electron distribution in the outermost shell.
We can classify it into four blocks
s,p,d,f block elements
 

S – Block Elements

  • General Electronic configuration  is  ns1-2
  • This block is situated at the extreme left of the periodic table and contains elements of group 1 and 2. Group I elements are known as alkali metals. Group II elements are known as Alkali earth metal.
  • These elements are soft metals.
  • They have low melting point and boiling point.
  • They are highly reactive.
  • Most of them give characteristics colors to the flame.
  • They generally form ionic compounds.
  • They are good conductors of heat and electricity.  

P – Block Elements

  • General electronic configuration is ns2 np1-6
  • This block is situated at the extreme right of the periodic table and contains elements of groups 13,14,15,16,17 and 18
  • These compounds generally form covalent Bonds.
  • They show variable oxidation state.
  • They reactivity of element decreases down the group.
  • Metallic character increaser down the group.
  • On moving left to right in a period the metallic characters increase.  

D – Block Elements

  • General Electronic Configuration is ns0-2 (n – 1) d1-10
  • These are the elements from group 3-12 in the center of the periodic table
  • These are all metals.
  • They have high melting and boiling point.
  • These compounds are generally paramagnetic in nature.
  • These are generally used as catalyst.
  • These generally form coloured lens and have variable oxidation stage.
  • The elements of d-block are called d-transition elements

F – Block Elements

  • General configuration – ns2 (n – 1) d 0-1 (n – 2) f 1-14
  • Lanthanoids series General Electronic Configuration – 6s2 5d0-1 4f 1-14
  • Actinoids Series General Electronic Configuration – 7s2 6d0-1 5f1-14 These two series of elements are called inner transition elements
  • Lanthanoid consist of elements from Ce58 to Lu71.
  • Actinoid series consist of element from Th90 to Lr103
  • All the elements are metals and properties are quite similar.
  • Elements of actinoid series after uranium are radioactive and known as transuranium elements

118 elements and their symbols with Atomic Numbers

Elements

Symbol

Atomic Number

Actinium

Ac

89

Aluminum

Al

13

Americium

Am

95

Antimony

Sb

51

Argon

Ar

18

Arsenic

As

33

Astatine

At

85

Barium

Ba

56

Berkelium

Bk

97

Beryllium

Be

4

Bismuth

Bi

83

Bohrium

Bh

107

Boron

B

5

Bromine

Br

35

Cadmium

Cd

48

Calcium

Ca

20

Californium

Cf

98

Carbon

C

6

Cerium

Ce

58

Cesium

Cs

55

Chlorine

Cl

17

Chromium

Cr

24

Cobalt

Co

27

Copernicium

Cn

112

Copper

Cu

29

Curium

Cm

96

Darmstadtium

Ds

110

Dubnium

Db

105

Dysprosium

Dy

66

Einsteinium

Es

99

Erbium

Er

68

Europium

Eu

63

Fermium

Fm

100

Flerovium

Fl

114

Fluorine

F

9

Francium

Fr

87

Gadolinium

Gd

64

Gallium

Ga

31

Germanium

Ge

32

Gold

Au

79

Hafnium

Hf

72

Hassium

Hs

108

Helium

He

2

Holmium

Ho

67

Hydrogen

H

1

Indium

In

49

Iodine

I

53

Iridium

Ir

77

Iron

Fe

26

Krypton

Kr

36

Lanthanum

La

57

Lawrencium

Lr

103

Lead

Pb

82

Lithium

Li

3

Livermorium

Lv

116

Lutetium

Lu

71

Magnesium

Mg

12

Manganese

Mn

25

Meitnerium

Mt

109

Mendelevium

Md

101

Mercury

Hg

80

Molybdenum

Mo

42

Moscovium

Mc

115

Neodymium

Nd

60

Neon

Ne

10

Neptunium

Np

93

Nickel

Ni

28

Nihonium

Nh

113

Niobium

Nb

41

Nitrogen

N

7

Nobelium

No

102

Oganesson

Og

118

Osmium

Os

76

Oxygen

O

8

Palladium

Pd

46

Phosphorus

P

15

Platinum

Pt

78

Plutonium

Pu

94

Polonium

Po

84

Potassium

K

19

Praseodymium

Pr

59

Promethium

Pm

61

Protactinium

Pa

91

Radium

Ra

88

Radon

Rn

86

Rhenium

Re

75

Rhodium

Rh

45

Roentgenium

Rg

111

Rubidium

Rb

37

Ruthenium

Ru

44

Rutherfordium

Rf

104

Samarium

Sm

62

Scandium

Sc

21

Seaborgium

Sg

106

Selenium

Se

34

Silicon

Si

14

Silver

Ag

47

Sodium

Na

11

Strontium

Sr

38

Sulfur

S

16

Tantalum

Ta

73

Technetium

Tc

43

Tellurium

Te

52

Tennessine

Ts

117

Terbium

Tb

65

Thallium

Tl

81

Thorium

Th

90

Thulium

Tm

69

Tin

Sn

50

Titanium

Ti

22

Tungsten

W

74

Uranium

U

92

Vanadium

V

23

Xenon

Xe

54

Ytterbium

Yb

70

Yttrium

Y

39

Zinc

Zn

30

Zirconium

Zr

40

 

 




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