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Isomerism




ISOMERISM

The compounds having same molecular formula but different structural formula are called as isomers and this phenomena is called as Isomerism.

Types of Isomerism:-

Types of Isomerism
(i) Structural isomerism
1. Chain
2. Position
3. Functional
4. Metamerism
5. Tautomerism
(ii) Stereo isomerism
1. Geometrical
2. Optical

Structural Isomerism

The different type of Structural Isomerism is defined below

CHAIN ISOMERISM
Isomers having same molecular formula but different carbon skeletons.
CHAIN ISOMERISM

POSITION ISOMERS
  1. Isomers having different position of functional group.
  2. The molecular formula $C_3H_8O$ represents two alcohols:
    POSITION ISOMERS

FUNCTIONAL ISOMERS
Isomers, having same molecular formula but different functional groups.
    Aldehyde     &      Ketone
    (RCHO)          (RCOR)
For example, the molecular formula $C_3H_6O$ represents an aldehyde and a ketone
FUNCTIONAL ISOMERS

METAMERIC ISOMERS
When Ethers have different alkyl groups, such isomers are known as Metameric isomers.
For example, $C_4H_{10}O$ represents methoxypropane ($CH_3OC_3H_7$) and ethoxyethane ($C_2H_5OC_2H_5$ ).

Stereo isomerism

The compounds that have the same constitution and sequence of covalent bonds but differ in relative positions of their atoms or groups in space are called stereoisomers.


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