We already know that capacitance and inductor can store electrical and magnetic energy respectively
when a charged capacitor is allowed to discharge through an resistance less inductor ,the current oscillates back and forth in the circuit
Thus electrical oscillations of constant amplitude are produced in the circuit and are called L-C oscillations
Let the capacitor of capacitance C be given a charge q0 and is then connected to an inductor as shown below in the figure
The moment the circuit is completed, charge on the capacitor begins to decrease giving rise to current in the circuit
Suppose at any instant t during the discharge ,q is the amount of charge on the capacitor and I is the current through out the inductor
EMF equation as obtained by Kirchhoff’s second law would be
Comparing equation (18) with the SHM equation for mass spring system i.e.,
where ω is the natural angular frequency of oscillations of undamped mass spring system, we can conclude that charge on the circuit oscillate with natural frequency
and varies sinusoidal with time as
where q0 is the maximum value of q and φ is the phase constant .
For initial phase φ=0,q=q0cosωt
We thus see that LC circuit is identical to mass-spring system executing SHM
Time period of oscillations is
The current in the circuit is given by
Equation(23) indicates that the current in the circuit is also oscillatory and has the same frequency as charge
In an L-C circuit ,during oscillations energy is partly electric and partly magnetic that is the oscillations consists of a transfer of energy back and forth from electric field of capacitor to magnetic field of the inductor
The total energy of the circuit always remain constant and the situation is analogous to the transfer of energy in the mass-spring oscillation where energy alternates between two forms kinetic and potential
Table given below compares the mechanic oscillations of mass spring system with that of electrical oscillations in an L-C circuit
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