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Asexual reproduction





Asexual reproduction

  • Asexual reproduction (apomixes) is the formation of new individuals without involving the formation & fusion of gametes.
  •  In this method, a single individual is capable of producing offsprings.
  •  Offsprings produced are identical & represent the exact copies of their parents. Such morphologically & genetically similar individuals are called as clones.
Characteristics (other than above…)
  •  It involves only mitotic division.
  •  It involves rapid reproduction.
  • Unit of reproduction may be whole parent body, or a bud, or a body fragment or a single somatic cell.
  •  In it new organisms are produced from the somatic part of parental organism, so it is also called somatogenic reproduction.
For example: It is found in lower organism like Amoeba, Paramecium, Hydra, Planaria, Salpa etc.

Types of Asexual reproduction

1: fission
2: budding
3: fragmentation
4: zoospores
5: conidia formation
6: vegetative propagation
7: regeneration

Fission

It is that types of asexual reproduction in which a fully grown parental organism divides into two or more than two daughter cells. It occurs only in unicellular organisms.
Types of fission:-
On the basis of number of daughter cells produced, fission is of two types:
1: binary fission
2: multiple fission
Binary fission:- It is division of adult parental body into to nearly equal daughter cells during  favourable conditions.
For eg:- Amoeba, Euglena etc.
Binary fission in amoeba |Asexual reproduction
Multiple fission :- In this type of asexual reproduction, the parent cells divides into many daughter cells, each of which grows into an adult. For eg: Plasmodium, Amoeba.


Budding:

It is that type of Asexual reproduction in which one or more unicellular or multicellular out growth, called buds are formed on or inside the body.
For eg: Hydra, yeast etc.
In yeast the division is unequal & small buds are produced that remain attached initially to the parent cell which, eventually get separated & mature into new yeast organisms.                                       

Fragmentation:

It is that type of asexual reproduction in which the parental body breaks into two or more fragments and each fragments then form a new organism.
For eg: Slat worm, spirogyra, flatworm.

Zoospores:

Members of kingdom fungi & algae reproduce through special asexual reproductive structure called zoospores. These are flagellated, motile, naked protoplasmic bodies (without membrane) which are produced in zoosporangium.
For  eg- Ulothrix.

Conidia formation:

These are non-motile spores & produced at the tip of special hyphen branches known as  conidiophores.
 For eg-  Penicillium , Aspergillus etc.
 
 



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