Vegetative reproduction (Vegetative Propagation)

Vegetative reproduction (Vegetative Propagation):
It is the process of formation or regeneration of new plants from a portion of a vegetative part (root, shoot, leaves) of a plant.
Methods of vegetative propagation
1: natural method
2: artificial method
Natural Methods of Vegetative Propagation:
Vegetative organs such as roots, stems & leaves bear adventitious buds & bring about the formation of new plants. These structures are also called vegetative propogules.
Vegetative propagation by roots
Example: shisham (Dalbargia sissoo)
Vegetative propagation by stem
Example: banana, ginger
Vegetative propagation by leaf
Example: Bryophyllum & Begonia bear adventitious buds on their leaves.
Stem tuber (Potato), runner (Doobgrass) are all capable of giving rise to new organism by vegetative propagation.
Artificial Methods of Vegetative Propagation:
The process of growing many plants from one plant by man made method is called artificial propagation.
The three common methods for artificial propagation are cutting, grafting, layering.
Cutting: A cutting is separated portion of roots, stem or leaf.
1.It is very common method employed for artificial propagation method.
2.For eg:- sugar cane, Roses, grapes etc are largely & rapidly propagated by stem cutting.
3.In this method a cutting of the parent plant having some buds on it taken & its lower part is buried in the moist soil. After a few days, the cutting develops roots grows into a new plant.
1.It is a method in which the cut stem of two different plants ( one with roots & other without roots) are joined together in such a way that the two stems join & grows as a single plant.
2.This new plant will have the characteristics of both the original plants.
3.The cut stem of plant having roots is called stock. The cut stem of another plant without root is called scion.
4.The success of grafting must by depends upon the union of the cambium of scion & stock which results in organic connection between them 5.The cut surface should be held together tightly by wrapping, nailing or some such method.
For eg:- Grafting is used to breed fruit tree & flower bushes. Apple, peach, apricot are often grafted.
In this method stem/ plant branch are chosen for propagation (layer) remain attached to the parent till it as produced adventitious roots.
Layering   is of two types:
1.Ground layering
2.Air layering
Ground Layering: In it stem is capable of bending (Herbs) & the selected branch is bend down to the soil.
Air Layering: In it bark of the chosen branch is cut by gridling or ringing near the base. When the roots appear the stem is cut below the level of roots & planted.
This method is used in lichi, citrus, guava etc.

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