# fibre to fabric notes

## Fibre to Fabric

• FABRIC: Cloth or other material produced by weaving or knitting fibres.
• We wear clothes to protect our bodies against the weather- strong sunlight, extreme cold or heat, and rain.
• Clothing was invented between 50,000 and 1,00,000 years ago.
• The clothing of a person depends on various factors such as climate, culture, profession, weather changes etc.
• YARN: Spun thread used for knitting, weaving, or sewing.
• FIBRE: A thread or filament from which a vegetable tissue, mineral substance, or textile is formed.
• There are two kinds of Fibres – NATURAL & SYNTHETIC.

## Natural Fibre

Natural fibres are obtained either from plants or animals.

### ​Plant source:

Plant Source are cotton, jute, coir

COTTON

• Cotton plant is a shrub.
• Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant.
• The fruit of the cotton plant is called cotton ball.
• It grows in Black soil.
• It requires warm climate with moderate rainfall.
• It is a soft fibre.
• It is sown between May & September.
• Harvesting begins in October.
• GINNING: cotton balls burst open after maturing. It is a process in which the cotton fibres are separated from the cotton seeds or lint.
• SPINNING: A process of making yarn from fibers. In this process a mass of cotton wool fibers are drawn out and twisted. It is an art where the fiber is drawn out, twisted, and then wound onto a bobbin. By this, fibers come together to form a yarn. Spinning can be done by hand and charkha. On high scale production, spinning is done with the help of machines.
• WEAVING: The process of combining and organizing two different sets of yarns together to make fabric is called weaving. It can be done on looms that are either - hand operated or power operated. It is a method of textile production in which two definite sets of threads are braid together at right angles forming a fabric or cloth.

JUTE:

• It is the second most important fibre after cotton.
• Jute is a fibre obtained from the bark of the jute plant.
• It is a long, soft, shiny plant fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
• One of the CHEAPEST natural fibre.
• Useful properties: Biodegradability, Durability, & Strength.
• Grows best in warm, humid climate, with plenty of rainfall.
• Alluvial soil is best.
• It is a rainy season crop.
• In India, jute is mainly grown in West Bengal, Bihar & Assam.
• Sowing is done between February and may.
• It is harvested from June to September depending upon whether the sowings are early or late.
• After harvesting -> the stalk of the plants are tied into bundles and soaked in water for 20 days, this process is called retting.
• It softens the tissues and permits the fibres to be separated.
• The fibres are then stripped from the stalks in long strand & washed in clear, running water. Then it is dried for 2-3 days before sending it to the mills.
• Use- sacks, coarse cloth, curtains, carpet, chair cover, hessian cloth.

COIR

• Obtained from the outer covering or the husk of the coconut.
• Use – ropes, floor covering and also stuffing in mattresses and pillows.

SILK COTTON

• It is obtained from the silky hairs that surround the seeds of kapok trees that grows in India & Malaysia.
• It is light and fluffy.
• Used for stuffing cushions, mattress, sound insulation.

### Animal source

Animal Source are wool, silk

WOOL

• Derived from the hair of sheep.
• SHEARING – the process of removing the wool from ship using a special type of clippers.
• KNITTING - In knitting, a single yarn is used to make a fabric. The process of making a fabric by interlocking loops of single yarn with knitting needles or machines, is called knitting. Knitting is done by hand and also on machines.
• Wool is fluffy, hence retains air. -> Air is bad conductor of heat -> thus woolen cloths retains the body heat and makes us feel warm in cold weather.
• Australia – leading producer of wool in the world.
• India – ranks 9th.

SILK

• Silk is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm.
• Silkworms feed on the leaves of mulberry plant.
• India has the unique distinction of being the only country producing all the five kinds of silk namely, Mulberry, Eri, Muga, Tropical Tasar and Temperate Tasar.
• The caterpillars of the domestic silk moth (also called ‘Bombyx mori’) are the most commonly used silkworm species in sericulture
• Each worm spins a continuous thread up to 800 meter long to make a cocoon.
• COCOON: The silky covering spun by the silkworm (or caterpillar) of silk moth is called cocoon. The cocoon is made by silkworm to protect its development as pupa.
• The cocoon is boiled in water to kill the silkworm & then the silk fibre is removed.
• SERICULTURE: Rearing of silkworms for production of silk is called sericulture.
• First developed in China.

## Synthetic Fibres

• For thousands of years natural fibres were the only ones available for making fabrics.
• Synthetic fibres are man-made fibres, made only from polymers found in natural gas and the by-products of petroleum.
• Examples of synthetic fibres are polyester, nylon and acrylic.
• Clothes made from synthetic fibres are stronger and do not wrinkle easily.
• Can not absorb sweat, hence un suitable for hot and humid weather.

• Notes
• Assignments
• NCERT Solutions

### Practice Question

Question 1 What is $\frac {1}{2} + \frac {3}{4}$ ?
A)$\frac {5}{4}$
B)$\frac {1}{4}$
C)$1$
D)$\frac {4}{5}$
Question 2 Pinhole camera produces an ?
A)An erect and small image
B)an Inverted and small image
C)An inverted and enlarged image
D)None of the above