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Components of food class 6 notes




Introduction to Components of Food

  • All living organisms such as plants and animals require food. So, food is essential for all living organisms.
  • The food that we eat consists of different components or nutrients.
  • NUTRIENTS are required for proper growth and healthy body function.
  • The process by which we obtain food and utilize it for growth and development is called nutrition.
  • Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are essential components of food, these components are called nutrients.
  • In addition, food also contains dietary fibres and waters
why do organism need foods

Different Type of Food


Components of Food

Carbohydrates
  • Provides energy to our body.
  • There are two types of carbohydrates: SUGAR and STARCH
  •  SUGAR: it is called SIMPLE carbohydrates. Source: fruits, honey, and table sugar
  • STARCH:  it is called COMPLEX carbohydrate. Plants store energy in the form of starch. Source: Rice, wheat, corn, potato, and bread.
  • If after adding iodine to the food, the food turns into blue-black colour, then it indicates that it contains starch.
  • In our digestive system sugar and starch are broken down into glucose by various enzymes (substance produced by a living organism which helps to bring about a specific biochemical reaction)
  • GLUCOSE is the SIMPLEST form of Carbohydrates
  • It is then absorbed into the blood and provides us energy.

Fats
  • Provides energy to our body.
  • Fats are the slowest source of energy but the most energy-efficient form of food.
  • Each gram of fat supplies the body with calories, more than twice that supplied by equal amount of proteins or carbohydrates.
  • Food containing both carbohydrates and fat are called ‘ENERGY GIVING FOODS’
  • There are of two types of FAT: SATURATED and UNSATURATED.
  • SATURATED: Normally Solid at room temperature. E.g. butter and ghee.
  • UNSATURATED:  Normally Liquid at room temperature. E.g., vegetable oil
  • There are generally two types of source of fat : Plant & Animal
    1. Plant source: ground nut oil, Mustard oil, Sunflower oil, Coconut oil, Cashew, Soyabean
    2. Animal source: Butter, ghee, milk, cheese, egg yolk, Meat, fish.
  • Excess body fat leads to a condition called Obesity. Obesity may lead to heart diseases.

Proteins
  • Protein is needed for growth and repair of our body.
  • Food containing proteins are called ‘BODY BUILDING FOODS’
  • Children require more protein because of the rapid growth of their body.
  • Our Muscles, organs even bloods are made up of mostly proteins.
  • There are generally two types of source of Protein: Plant & Animal
    1. Plant source: peas, soyabean, groundnut,
    2. Animal source: Milk, cheese, fish, meat, chicken, eggs
  • Protein rich food -> put it in test tube and add some water -> heat the test tube for 1 min -> let it cool , then add two drops of COPPER SULPHATE soln and SODIUM HYDROXIDE -> turn PURPLE /VIOLET to confirm presence of Protein.

Vitamins
  • For proper functioning of our body we need vitamins in our diet.
  • Vitamins keep us healthy.
  • There are about 20 vitamins
  • Vitamins are of two types: FAT-SOLUBLE and WATER – SOLUBLE.
    1. FAT- SOLUBLE: A,D,E,K Stored in fat tissues of our body.

      Our body prepares vitamin D in the presence of sunlight.

    2. WATER – SOLUBLE : B1,B2,B3,B6,B12, FOLIC ACID & VITAMIN C Not stored in body, so regular intake is necessary .

  • Lack of vitamins in the body can cause deficiency disease.


Minerals
  • Minerals are nutrients that contain certain elements.
  • They are required in small quantities in our diet.
  • Their deficiency also leads to efficiency diseases.
  • Minerals are of two types: MACRO-MINERALS & TRACE MINERALS
    1. MACRO: Required more in amount by our body e.g., Calcium, magnesium, Sodium, Potassium

    2. TRACE: Required in very small amount

      e.g., Iron, Zinc, Copper, Iodine



Roughage or dietary fibres.
  • Roughage is the fibrous matter in food which can’t be digested.
  • Mainly made of an indigestible carbohydrate called ‘cellilose’ which is present in plant cell walls.
  • It does not provide any nutrient to our body.
  • It has no FOOD VALUE but its presence is essential in our food.
  • Lack of fibers in our diet causes the stool to become hard & difficult to pass. This condition is called constipation.

Water
  • Water makes up almost 70 per cent of our body weight.
  • It helps to transport substances inside our body.
  • It helps our body to absorb nutrients from food.
  • It helps to regulate our body temperature.
  • It is needed for various chemical reactions that take place inside our body during digestion, excretion, etc.
  • We get water not only from the liquids we drink but also from the food we eat. Milk, fruits, vegetables, and juices are good sources of water
Summary
Carbohydrates and Fats
Carbohydrates in our food are mainly sugar, starch.
Starch is present in grains like rice, wheat, maize, tubers like potatoes etc.
Sugar is the sweet substance. Common sugar we use is Sucrose and it is obtained from Sugar cane
Fats are stored energy resource. Animal sources include milk, butter, ghee, cheese and meat and Plants resources like oil are rich resources of fats
Proteins
Proteins are body-building food as they help in body growth and repair of damaged parts of the body.
Animal sources like eggs, fish, meat, milk, cheese and Plant sources like pulses of beans are resource of proteins
Proteins are broken-down by the digestive system into amino acids (which can be absorbed into the blood).
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins are protective food as they protect us from many diseases. They give us resistance against disease causing germ
Vitamins are A, B, C.D, K, E. They are obtained from Fruits, vegetables, fish liver oil, milk, eggs,
Minerals are also required in small quantities. Minerals include sodium, Calcium, Potassium, iodine and phosphorous


What is Balanced Diet?

A balanced diet is food intake that includes all the dietary needs of the organism in the correct proportions.
Balanced diet comprises the components like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and enough water. Balanced diet keeps our body fit and resistant to diseases
What is Balanced Diet

Deficiency diseases

Diseases that occur due to lack of nutrients over a long period are called deficiency diseases
  • Deficiency of carbohydrates causes lack of energy and stamina.
  • Deficiency of proteins causes kwashiorkor whereas combined deficiency of proteins and carbohydrates causes marasmus.
  • Deficiency of vitamins can cause night blindness, beriberi, anemia, scurvy, and rickets.
  • Deficiency of water can cause dehydration.
  • Deficiency of minerals can cause osteoporosis, rickets, anaemia, and goiter.

Good Cooking Habits:

  • Overheating, overcooking destroys nutrients and add extra calories at times.
  • Vitamin C is destroyed due to overheating.
  • Use of excess water is not desirable.
  • Washing of rice and pulses repeatedly removes nutrients.
  • Vegetables and fruits should be washed before cutting

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crossword puzzle for Components of food class 6 science Notes
Across
5. Dietary fibres are also known as ______
6. These protects the body from germs and diseases
8. They are body building food
9. The starch and sugar in food is called ______
Down
1. They are required for proper growth of body
2. Symptoms of Weak muscles and very little energy to work
3. Symptoms of Bleeding gums,wounds take longer time to heal
4. These are stored energy resources
7. carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are called ______

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