 # Alternating Current & EMF

## Introduction

• We have already discussed about direct current (DC) which is produced by the voltage source whose pole does not change their polarity with time
• Hence direction of flow of direct current does not changes with time
• Alternating current on the other hand is produced by voltage source whose terminal polarity keeps alternating with time i.e. terminal which was positive at one instant of time becomes negative some time later and vice -versa
• Due to changing polarity of voltage source direction of flow of current also keep changing
• In this chapter we would learn how voltage and current changing with time are related to each other in various circuits with components namely resistors, capacitor and inductor.

## Alternating current and Alternating EMF

• An alternating current is one whose magnitude changes sinusoidal with time .Thus alternating current is given by Where
i0=current amplitude or peak value of alternating current
If T is the time period of alternating current and f is the frequency, then Where ω is called angular frequency of A.C and φ is known as phase constant
• Instead of sine function AC can also be represented by cosine function and both representation leads to same results. We will discuss circuits with sine representation of A.C
• Figure below shows the variation of A.C with time • Complete set of variations of the current in one time period T is called cycle
• The emf or voltage whose magnitude changes sinusoidal with time is known as alternating emf and is represented by where V0 is the peak value of alternating current.

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