1. What is Cartesian Sets?
Given two nonempty sets \(A\) and \(B\). The Cartesian product \(A \times B\) is
the set of all ordered pairs of elements from \(A\) and \(B\), i.e.,
\(A \times B = \left\{ {\left( {a,b} \right):a \in A,b \in B} \right\}\)
If either \(A\) or \(B\) is the null set, then \(A \times B\) will also be
empty set, i.e., \(A \times B\)
Important tips
 Two ordered pairs are equal, if and only if the corresponding first elements
are equal and the second elements are also equal.
 If there are \(p\) elements in \(A\) and \(q\) elements in \(B\),
then there will be \(pq\) elements in \(A \times B\), i.e.,
if \(n\left( A \right) = p\) and \(n\left( B \right) = q\), then \(n\left( {A \times B} \right) = pq\).
 If \(A\) and \(B\) are nonempty sets and either \(A\) or \(B\)
is an infinite set, then so is \(A \times B\).
 \(A \times A \times A = \left\{ {\left( {a,b,c} \right):a,b,c \in A} \right\}\).
Here \({\left( {a,b,c} \right)}\) is called an ordered triplet
Questtion 1
If \(P = \left\{ {1,2} \right\}\) and \(Q = \left\{ {5,4,2} \right\}\), find \(P \times Q\) and \(Q \times P\).
Solution
\(P = \left\{ {1,2} \right\}\) and \(Q = \left\{ {5,4,2} \right\}\)
We know that the Cartesian product \(P \times Q\) of two nonempty sets \(P\) and \(Q\) is defined as
\(P \times Q = \left\{ {\left( {p,q} \right):p \in P,q \in Q} \right\}\)
\(\therefore P \times Q = \left\{ {\left( {1,5} \right),\left( {1,4} \right),\left( {1,2} \right),\left( {2,5} \right),\left( {2,4} \right),\left( {2,2} \right)} \right\}\)
\(Q \times P = \left\{ {\left( {5,1} \right),\left( {5,2} \right),\left( {4,1} \right),\left( {4,2} \right),\left( {2,1} \right),\left( {2,2} \right)} \right\}\)
Question 2
If \(A = \left\{ {  1,1} \right\}\), find \(A \times A \times A\)
Solution
It is known that for any nonempty set \(A\), \(A \times A \times A\) is defined as
\(A \times A \times A = \left\{ {\left( {a,b,c} \right):a,b,c \in A} \right\}\)
It is given that \(A = \left\{ {  1,1} \right\}\)
\(\therefore A \times A \times A\left\{ {\left( {  1,  1,  1} \right),\left( {  1,  1,1} \right),\left( {  1,1,  1} \right),\left( {  1,1,1} \right),\left( {1,  1,  1} \right),\left( {1,  1,1} \right),\left( {1,1,  1} \right),\left( {1,1,1} \right),} \right\}\)
2. What is relations?
A relation \(R\) from a nonempty set \(A\) to a nonempty set \(B\) is a subset of the cartesian product \(A \times B\).
It
"maps" elements of one set to another set. The subset is derived by describing a relationship
between the first element and the second element of the ordered pair \(\left( {A \times B} \right)\).
Domain: The set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in a relation \(R\) from a set
\(A\) to a set \(B\) is called the
domain of the relation \(R\).
Range: the set of all the ending points is called the
range
A relation can be expressed in Set builder or Roaster form
Roster forms
In a Roster forms, all the elements in the set is listed.
Example
Set of \(vovel = \left\{ {a,e,i,o,u} \right\}\)
Some Important points
 In roster form, the order in which the elements are listed is immaterial
 while writing the set in roster form an element is not generally repeated
Set Builder Form
 In setbuilder form, all the elements of a set possess a single common property
which is not possessed by any element outside the set. For example, in the set
\(\left\{ {2,4,6,8} \right\}\), all the elements possess a common property, namely, each of them
is a even number less than 10. Denoting this set by \(N\), we write
N = {x : x is a even number less than 10 }
 b) We describe the element of the set by using a symbol \(x\)
(any other symbol like the letters \(y\), \(z\), etc. could be used) which is followed by a colon
“ : ”. After the sign of colon, we write the characteristic property possessed by the
elements of the set and then enclose the whole description within braces
Important Note
The total number of relations that can be defined from a set \(A\) to a set \(B\)
is the number of possible subsets of \(A \cdot B\). If \(n\left( A \right) = p\) and \(n\left( B \right) = q\), then
\(n\left( {A \cdot B} \right) = pq\) and the total number of relations is \({2^{pq}}\)
Example:
Let \(P = \left\{ {1,2,3,.....,18} \right\}\) define a relation \(R\) from \(P\) to \(P\) by \(R = \left\{ {\left( {x,y} \right):2x  y = 0,where{\rm{ }}x,y \in P} \right\}\) Write down its domain, codomain and range.
Solution:
The relation \(R\) from \(P\) to \(P\) is given as
R = {(x,y):2xy=0, where x, y ∈ P}
i.e., R = {(x, y): 2x = y, where x, y ∈ P}
\(\therefore R{\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}\left\{ {\left( {1,{\rm{ }}2} \right),{\rm{ }}\left( {2,{\rm{ }}4} \right),{\rm{ }}\left( {3,{\rm{ }}6} \right),{\rm{ }}\left( {4,{\rm{ }}8} \right),{\rm{ }}\left( {5,{\rm{ }}10} \right),{\rm{ }}\left( {6,{\rm{ }}12} \right),{\rm{ }}\left( {7,{\rm{ }}14} \right),{\rm{ }}\left( {8,{\rm{ }}16} \right),\left( {9,18} \right)} \right\}\)
The domain of \(R\) is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.
\(\therefore Domain{\rm{ }}of{\rm{ }}R{\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}\left\{ {1,{\rm{ }}2,{\rm{ }}3,{\rm{ }}4,5,6,7,8,9} \right\}\)
The whole set \(P\) is the codomain of the relation \(R\).
Therefore codomain of \(R{\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}P{\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}\left\{ {1,{\rm{ }}2,{\rm{ }}3,{\rm{ }} \ldots ,{\rm{ }}18} \right\}\)
The range of \(R\) is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.
Therefore range of \(R = \left\{ {2,{\rm{ }}4,{\rm{ }}6,{\rm{ }}8,10,12,14,16,18} \right\}\)
3. What is Function
 A function is a "wellbehaved" relation
 A function \(f\) is a relation from a nonempty set \(A\) to a nonempty set \(B\) such that the domain of \(f\) is \(A\) and no
two distinct ordered pairs in \(f\) have the same first element.
 For a relation to be a function, there must be only and exactly one \(y\) that corresponds to a given \(x\)
 If \(f\) is a function from \(A\) to \(B\) and \(\left( {a,{\rm{ }}b} \right) \in f\), then \(f\left( a \right) = b\), where \(b\) is called the image of \(a\) under \(f\) and \(a\) is called the preimage of \(b\) under\(f\).
Example 1:
Which of the following relations are functions? Give reasons. If it is a function, determine
its domain and range.
 \(\left\{ {\left( {3,1} \right),\left( {5,1} \right),\left( {7,1} \right),\left( {11,1} \right),\left( {14,1} \right),\left( {17,1} \right)} \right\}\)
 \({\left\{ {\left( {2,1} \right),\left( {4,2} \right),\left( {6,3} \right),\left( {6,4} \right),\left( {10,5} \right),\left( {12,6} \right),\left( {14,7} \right)} \right\}}\)
 \({\left\{ {\left( {1,3} \right),\left( {1,5} \right),\left( {2,5} \right)} \right\}}\)
Answer
 \(\left\{ {\left( {3,1} \right),\left( {5,1} \right),\left( {7,1} \right),\left( {11,1} \right),\left( {14,1} \right),\left( {17,1} \right)} \right\}\)
Since 3, 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 are the elements of the domain of the given relation having
their unique images, this relation is a function.
 \({\left\{ {\left( {2,1} \right),\left( {4,2} \right),\left( {6,3} \right),\left( {6,4} \right),\left( {10,5} \right),\left( {12,6} \right),\left( {14,7} \right)} \right\}}\)
Since the same first element i.e 6 corresponds to two different images 3 and 4, this relation is not a function
 \({\left\{ {\left( {1,3} \right),\left( {1,5} \right),\left( {2,5} \right)} \right\}}\)
Since the same first element i.e., 1 corresponds to two different images i.e., 3 and 5,
this relation is not a function.
Important functions
Let us take some useful polynomial and shapes obtained on the Cartesian plane
S.No. 
\(y = p\left( x \right)\) 
Graph obtained 
Name of the graph 
Name of the function 
1. 
\(y = mx + c\) where m and c can be any
values \(\left( {m \ne 0} \right)\)
Example \(y = 2x + 3\)


Graphs of these functions are straight lines.
\(m\) is the slope and \(b\) is the \(y\) intercept. If \(m\) is positive
then the line rises to the right and if \(m\) is negative then
the line falls to the right 
Linear function.
Typical use for linear functions is converting from one quantity or set of units to another.

2. 
\(y = a{x^2} + bx + c\)
where, \({b^2}  4ac{\rm{ }} > {\rm{ }}0\) , \(a \ne 0\) and \(a > {\rm{ }}0\)
example \(y = {x^2}  7x + 12\)


Parabola
It intersect the x axis at two points
Example (3,0) and (4,0)

Quadratic function 
3. 
\(y = a{x^3} + b{x^2} + cx + d\)
where,\(a \ne 0\)

It can be of any shape

It will cut the xaxis at the most 3 times 
Cubic Function 
4. 
\({a_n}{x^n} + {a_{n  1}}{x^{n  1}} + {a_{n  2}}{x^{n  2}} + \ldots \ldots \ldots \ldots + ax + {a_0}\)
where \({a_n} \ne 0\)

It can be of any shape

It will cut the xaxis at the most n times 
Polynomial function 
5. 
\(y = \frac{{f(x)}}{{g(x)}}\)
where \(g(x) \ne 0\)
example \(y = \frac{1}{x}\)

It can be any shape

An asymptote is a line that the curve approaches
but does not cross.There are vertical and horizontal asymptote 
Rational function 
6. 
\(y = \left x \right\)
i.e., \(y =  x\) for \(x < 0\)
\(y = x\) for \(x \ge 0\)



Modulus function 
7. 
\(y = aln\left( x \right) + b\)
where \(x\) is in the natural logarithm and \(a\) and \(b\) are constants
They are only defined for positive


For small \(x\) they are negative and for large \(x\) they are positive \(x\) 
Logarithmic functions 
8. 
\(y = \left[ x \right]\)
\(\left[ x \right]{\rm{ }}  > \)the value of the greatest integer, less than or equal to x 


Greatest integer function 
4. Algebra of Real Function
Real Value Function: A function which has all real number or subset of the real number as it domain
Real Valued Function: A function which has all real number or subset of the real number as it range
For functions \(f:{\rm{ }}X  > {\bf{R}}\) and \(g:{\rm{ }}X  > {\bf{R}}\), we have
 Addition
\(\left( {f + g} \right)\left( x \right) = f\left( x \right) + g\left( x \right),x \in X\)
 Substraction
\(\left( {f  g} \right)\left( x \right) = f\left( x \right)g\left( x \right),x \in X\)
 Multiplication
\(\left( {f.g} \right)\left( x \right) = f\left( x \right).g\left( x \right),x \in X\)
 Multiplication by real number
\(\left( {kf} \right)\left( x \right) = k{\rm{ }}f\left( x \right),x \in X\), where \(k\) is a real number.
 Division
\(\frac{f}{g}\left( x \right) = \frac{{f(x)}}{{g(x)}}\)
\(x \in X\) and \(g\left( x \right) \ne 0\)
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