Class 10 Excretion|Life processes Important questions
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How are wastes formed in the body? Answer
Wastes are formed in the body as by- products of the metabolic activities in the body.
Define excretion. Answer
The removal of harmful and unwanted toxic waste products of metabolism from the body is known as excretion.
Define osmoregulation. Answer
The process by which the water content and the ion concentration is regulated and kept constant in the cells is known as osmoregulation.
Name an organ that performs both excretion and osmoregulation. Answer
Kidney perform both excretion and osmoregulation.
What is secretion? Give two examples. Answer
Secretion is the production of useful chemical substances like hormones, enzymes or other molecules by glands, endocrine glands or specialized cells. For example: The liver secretes bile, the islets of Langerhans secrete insulin, epithelial lining of the large intestine secrete mucus.
What is egestion? Answer
The expelling of undigested wastes from the body in the form of excreta is known as egestion.
What are the three main groups of excretory wastes found in animals? Answer:
The three main groups are
Name the two respiratory waste products formed due to catabolism of food? Answer
The two respiratory waste products formed due to catabolism of food are carbon dioxide and water.
ention four nitrogenous waste produced by animals? Answer: Four nitrogenous waste products produced by animals are:
In higher animals, what does ammonia react with to produce urea? Answer
Ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide in the liver tp form a less toxic substance, urea which is periodically flushed out of the system.
Name two groups of animals in which amino acids are excreted out without undergoing any change? Answer
Amino acids are excreted out without undergoing any change in:
Name two groups of animals which excrete uric acid in the form of a white paste or pellet? Answer
Animals which excrete uric acid in the form of a white paste or pellet are:
Name the organ that converts ammonia into urea in higher animals? Answer
Ammonia is converted into urea in the liver.
How are bile pigments formed? Answer
Bile pigments are formed by the breaking down of hemoglobin present in the red blood cells.
Name the organ that destroys worn out red blood cells. Answer
Worn out red blood cells are destroyed in the liver.
Name two bile pigments? Answer
The two bile pigments are:
Name the organelle in amoeba that performs excretion and osmoregulation. Answer
Contractile vacuole in amoeba performs excretion and osmoregulation.
What would happen to amoeba if osmoregulation did not take place? Answer
If osmoregulation did not take place the organism would get flooded with water and burst.
How does the cell membrane perform excretion in amoeba? Answer
The cell membrane of Amoeba being semi permeable the carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell membrane into the surrounding water. The cell membrane forms the general body surface of amoeba.
Name two waste products excreted by the skin? Answer
Two waste products excreted by the skin are:
ention one difference between sebum and sweat? Answer
Sebum is secreted by the sebaceous gland. Sweat is secreted by the sweat gland.
Where are sebaceous glands found? Answer
Sebaceous glands are found attached to the hair follicle in the skin of mammals.
ention three excretory substances found in sebum? Answer
Three excretory substances found in sebum are:
Name the principal excretory organ in man. What does it excrete? Answer
The main excretory organ in man are the kidney. They excrete urine.
Why is the right kidney lower than the left? Answer
The right kidney is lower than the left because of the presence of liver, in the abdominal cavity.
Name three beverages that are diuretics? Answer
Three beverages that are diuretics are:
Differentiate between afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole. Answer
Formed by the branching of the renal artery
Formed by the joining of the glomerular capillaries
Its lumen is twice as thick as the efferent arteriole
Its lumen is twice as narrow as that of the afferent arteriole Carries
Brings oxygenated blood into the kidney
Oxygenated blood away from the Bowman’s capsule
Brings blood which contains large amounts of water and nitrogenous metabolic wastes
It carries away blood that is relatively thicker and free of toxic wastes
Divides to form the glomerulus which is a knot inside the Bowman’s capsule
Divides to form the vasa rectae enveloping the renal tubule
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