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Life Process Notes for Class 10 Biology




Introduction

  • All the plants and animals are alive or living things.
  • The most important criterion to decide whether something is alive or not is the movement.
  • The movements in animals are fast and can be observed easily but the movements in plants are slow and observed with difficulty.
  • Animals can move from one place to another or they can move their body parts.
  • The plants can only move parts of their body such as leaves, flowers, roots and shoots.

Life Processes

The basic functions performed by living organisms to maintain their life on this earth are called life processes.
Basic life processes common to all living organisms are:
Basic life processes
Function
Nutrition
Taking of food inside the body and converting it into smaller molecules which can be absorbed by the body.
Respiration
The process which releases energy from the food absorbed by the body.
Transport
The process in which a substance absorbed or made in one part of the body is moved to other parts of the body.
Excretion
The process in which the waste materials produced in the cells of the body are removed from the body.
Control and coordination
A process which helps the living organisms to survive in the changing environment around them.
Growth
The process involves the changes from a smaller organism to a big organism.
Movement
The organism either moves from one place to another or moves its body parts.
Reproduction
The process involves the making of more organisms form the existing once.
  • All the living organisms need energy to perform various life processes. They get this energy from food. Food is a kind of fuel which provides energy to all the living organisms.

Nutrition

  • Food is an organic substance. The simplest food is glucose also called simple sugar.
  • A more complex food is starch. It is made from glucose.
  • The general name of substances like glucose and starch is ‘carbohydrates’.
Nutrient: A nutrient can be defined as a substance which an organism obtains from its surroundings and uses it as a source of energy or for the biosynthesis of its body constituents.
Example: carbohydrates and fats are the nutrients which are used by the organism mainly as a source of energy.
Proteins and mineral salts are nutrients used by organism for the biosynthesis of its body constituents like skin, blood, etc.

Nutrition:

Nutrition is the process of intake of nutrients (like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water) by an organism as well as the utilization of these nutrients by the organism.

Mode of Nutrition:

Mode of nutrition means method of obtaining food by an organism. There are mainly two modes of nutrition:
  1. Autotrophic mode of nutrition
  2. Heterotrophic mode of nutrition
Autotrophic mode of nutrition: (‘auto’ means ‘self’ and ‘trophe’ means ‘nutrition’)
  • Autotrophic nutrition is that mode of nutrition in which an organism makes (or synthesizes) its own food from the simple inorganic materials like carbon dioxide and water present in the surroundings (with the help of sunlight energy).
  • Those organisms which can make their own food from carbon dioxide and water are called autotrophs.
  • Example: all green plants, autotrophic bacteria.
  • Autotrophs make their food by photosynthesis.

Heterotrophic mode of nutrition: (‘heteros’ means ‘others’ and ‘trophe’ means ‘nutrition’)

  • Heterotrophic nutrition is that mode of nutrition in which an organism cannot make (or synthesizes) its own food from simple inorganic materials like carbon dioxide and water, and depends on other organisms for its food.
  • Those organisms which cannot make their own food from inorganic substances like carbon dioxide and water, and depends on other organisms for their food are called heterotrophs.
  • Example: all the animals (man, dog, cat, lion, etc.), most bacteria and fungi.

Types of Heterotrophic Nutrition:

 Heterotrophic mode of nutrition is of three types:
  1. Saprotrophic (saprophytic) nutrition
  2. Parasitic nutrition
  3. Holozoic nutrition

Saprotrophic nutrition:

  • Saprotrophic nutrition is that nutrition in which an organism obtains its food from decaying organic matter of dead plants, dead animals and rotten bread, etc.
  • The organisms having saprotrophic mode of nutrition are called saprophytes.
  • Saprophytes are the organisms which obtain food from dead plants (like rotten leaves), dead and decaying animal bodies, and other decaying organic matter.
  • Example: Fungi (liker bread moulds, mushrooms), and many bacteria.

Parasitic nutrition:

  • The parasitic nutrition is that nutrition in which an organism derives its food from the body of another living organisms without killing it.
  • A parasite is an organism (plant or animal) which feed on another living organism called its host.
  • Example: some animals like Plasmodium and roundworms, a few plants like Cuscuta (amarbel) and several fungi and bacteria.

Holozoic nutrition:

  • The holozoic nutrition is that nutrition in which an organism takes the complex organic food materials into its body by the process of ingestion, the ingested food is digested and then absorbed into the body cells of the organism.
  • Example: human beings and most of the animal.

Test Your understanding

1. ______ process in which a substance absorbed or made in one part of the body is moved to other parts of the body.

2. ______ process in which the __________________ materials produced in the cells of the body are removed from the body.

3. The simplest food is glucose also called simple __________________ and A more complex food is called __________________ and they together are called as ________.

4. A __________________ can be defined as a substance which an organism obtains from its surroundings and uses it as a source of energy or for the biosynthesis of its body constituents.

5. __________________ nutrition is that mode of nutrition in which an organism makes its own food from the simple inorganic materials like $CO_2$ and $H_20$ present in the surroundings (with the help of sunlight energy) and Those organisms are called _________.

6. A __________________ is an organism (plant or animal) which feed on another living organism called its host.

7. _______ process involves the making of more organisms form the existing once.

8. The __________________ nutrition is that nutrition in which an organism takes the complex organic food materials into its body by the process of ingestion, the ingested food is digested and then absorbed into the body cells of the organism.

9.Food is a kind of fuel which provides energy to all the __________________ organisms.

10. __________________ nutrition is that mode of nutrition in which an organism cannot make (or synthesizes) its own food from simple inorganic materials like $CO_2$ and $H_20$ , and depends on other organisms for its food and Those organisms are called _________.

Nutrition in plants:

  • Green plants are autotrophic and synthesize their own food by the process of photosynthesis.
  • The process, by which green plants make their own food from carbon dioxide and water by using sunlight energy in the presence of chlorophyll, is called photosynthesis.
  • Oxygen is released during photosynthesis.
The process of photosynthesis can be represented as:
  • The process of photosynthesis takes place in the green leaves of a plant.
  • The food is prepared by the green leaves of a plant in the form of a simple sugar called glucose.
  • The extra glucose is changed into another food called starch. This starch is stored in the leaves of the plant.
  • The green plants convert sunlight energy into chemical energy by making carbohydrates.
The photosynthesis takes place in the following three steps:
  1. Absorption of sunlight energy by chlorophyll.
  2. Conversion of light energy into chemical energy, and splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen by light energy.
  3. Reduction of carbon dioxide by hydrogen to form carbohydrate like glucose by utilizing the chemical energy.
Conditions necessary for photosynthesis:
The conditions necessary for photosynthesis to take place are:
  1. Sunlight
  2. Chlorophyll
  3. Carbon dioxide
  4. water
  • Green leaves make starch as food. Starch gives a blue black color with iodine solution.
Raw materials for photosynthesis:
The raw materials for photosynthesis are:
  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Water

How the plants obtain carbon dioxide?

  • There are a large number of tiny pores called stomata on the surface of the leaves of plants.
  • The carbon dioxide gas enters the leaves of the plant through the stomata present on their surface.
  • Each stomatal pore is surrounded by a pair of guard cells. The opening and closing of stomatal pores is controlled by the guard cells.
  • When water flows into the guard cells, they swell, become curved and cause the pore to open.
  • On the other hand, when guard cells lose water, they shrink, become straight and close the stomatal pores.

How the plants obtain water for photosynthesis:

  • The water required by the plants for photosynthesis is absorbed by the root of the plants from the soil through the process of osmosis.
  • The water absorbed by the roots of the plants is transported upward through the xylem vessels to the leaves where it reaches the photosynthetic cells.
  1. The plants also need other raw materials such as nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and magnesium, etc., for building their body.
  2. The plants take these materials from the soil.
  3. Nitrogen is essential element used by the plants to make proteins and other compound.

Site of photosynthesis: Chloroplasts

  • The site of photosynthesis in a cell of the leaf are chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll.
  • Chloroplasts are present in the photosynthetic cells (mesophyll cells) of green plants. These cells contain more chlorophyll than other plant cells. 

Experiments:

The experiments on photosynthesis depend on the fact that green leaves make starch as food and the starch gives a blue –black colour with iodine solution.
Experiment to show that Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis:
  1. Take a potted plant with green leaves and place it in a dark place for about three days to destarch its leaves.
  2. Take a thin strip of aluminium foil and wrap it in the centre of one leaf on the both sides so that sunlight may not fall on this covered part of the leaf.
  3. The remaining part of the leaf remains uncovered and exposed to sunlight.
  4. Now keep the plant in sunshine for about six hours.
  5. Pluck the partially covered leaf from the plant and remove its aluminium foil.
  6. Remove its green color chlorophyll by boiling the leaf in alcohol with the help of water bath.
  7. Wash the decolorized leaf with water to remove any chlorophyll which may be sticking in it.
  8. Pour iodine solution over the colorless leaf and observe the change in colour of the leaf.
Observation:
  1. On adding iodine solution, Covered part of the leaf does not turn blue-black showing that no starch is present in this middle part of the leaf.
  2. The uncovered part of the leaf which received light turns blue-black showing that starch is present in this part of the leaf.
Inference: Since the part of the leaf which was covered and hidden from sunlight does not contain starch and the part of the leaf which was exposed to sunlight contains starch. Therefore, sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis.

Test your understanding


1. The process, by which green plants make their own food from _______and __________________ by using sunlight energy in the presence of chlorophyll, is called _______.

2. _______ is essential element used by the plants to make proteins and other compound.

3.__________________ is released during photosynthesis.

4.The green plants convert sunlight energy into __________________ by making carbohydrates.

5.__________________ gives a blue black color with iodine solution.

6.Plants absorb $CO_2$ through a large number of tiny pores called _____ on the Surface of the leaves of plants.

7. The water required by the plants for photosynthesis is absorbed by the root of the plants from the soil through the process of _______.

8.The plants also require other raw materials such as ________, __________________,_____ and _____, etc., for building their body and these are obtained from Soil.

9. The water absorbed by the roots of the plants is transported upward through the __________________ vessels to the leaves where it reaches the photosynthetic cells.

10. Leaves have green pigment called ________.


Nutrition in Animals

  • Animals are heterotrophs and hence they depend on other organisms (plants and other animals) for their food.
  • All the animals can be divided into three groups on the basis of their food habits. These are:
  1. Herbivores
  2. Carnivores
  3. Omnivores

Herbivores: Those animals which eat only plants are called herbivores. Examples are Goat, Cow, and Deer etc.

Carnivores: Those animals which eat only other animals as food are called carnivores. Examples are Lion, Tiger, and Lizard etc.

Omnivores: Those animals which eat both, plants and animals are called omnivores. Examples are Man, Dog and Crow etc.

  • It is the energy of sun which provides food for plants, and animals.

Different steps in the process of nutrition in animals

There are five steps in the process of nutrition in animals.
  1. Ingestion: The process of taking food into the body is called ingestion.
  2. Digestion: the process in which the food containing large, insoluble molecules is broken down into small, water soluble molecules is called digestion.
  3. Absorption: The process in which the digested food passes through the intestinal wall into blood stream is called absorption.
  4. Assimilation: The process in which the absorbed food is taken in by the body cells and used for energy, growth and repair is called assimilation.
  5. Egestion: The process in which the undigested food is removed from the body is called egestion.

Nutrition in Simple Animals:

Amoeba and paramecium are two very simple unicellular animals. In unicellular animals, all the processes of nutrition are performed by the single cell.

Nutrition in Amoeba:

  • Amoeba eats tiny plants and animals as food which floats in water in which it lives.
  • The mode of nutrition in Amoeba is holozoic.
  • The process of obtaining food by Amoeba is called phagocytosis.

Steps involved in the nutrition of Amoeba:

Ingestion:

  • Amoeba ingests food by forming temporary finger-like projections called pseudopodia around it.
  • The food is engulfed with a little surrounding water to form a food vacuole (‘temporary stomach’) inside the Amoeba.

Digestion:

  • In Amoeba, food is digested in the food vacuole by digestive enzymes which break down the food into small and soluble molecules by chemical reactions.

Absorption:

  • The digested simple and soluble substances pass out of food vacuole into the surrounding environment.

Assimilation:

  • The absorbed food materials are used to obtain energy through respiration and make the parts of Amoeba cell which leads to the growth of Amoeba.

Egestion:

  • The remaining undigested material is moved to the surface of the cell and thrown out of the body of Amoeba.

Nutrition in Paramecium:

  • Paramecium is also a tiny unicellular animal which lives in water.

Ingestion:

  • Paramecium uses its hair like structures called cilia to sweep the food particles from water and put them into mouth.
  • Ingestion is followed by other steps such as digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion. (as written in Amoeba)

Nutrition in Human Beings (Complex Multicellular Animal):

  • The various organs of the human digestive system in sequence are: Mouth, Oesophagus (Food pipe), Stomach, Small intestine and Large intestine.
  • The glands which are associated with the human digestive system are: Salivary glands, Liver and Pancreas.

The various steps of nutrition in human beings are as follows:

Ingestion:
  • In human beings, food is ingested through the mouth. The food is put into the mouth with the help of hands.

Digestion:
  • The digestion of food begins in the mouth itself.
  • The teeth cut the food into small pieces, chew and grind it. (Physical digestion)
  • The salivary glands in our mouth produce saliva (watery liquid) which contains an enzyme salivary amylase which digests the starch (carbohydrate) present in the food into sugar. (Chemical digestion)
  • Our tongue helps in mixing this saliva with food.
  • The digestion of food remains incomplete in mouth.

Oesophagus:
  • The slightly digested food in the mouth is swallowed by the tongue and goes down the food pipe called oesophagus.
  • When the slightly digested food enters the food pipe, the walls of food pipe start contraction and expansion movements called as peristaltic movement.
  • This peristaltic movement of food pipe pushes the slightly digested into the stomach.

Stomach:
  • The stomach is a J-shaped organ present on the left side of the abdomen.
  • The stomach walls contain s three tubular glands in it walls which secrete gastric juice.
  • The gastric juice contains three substances: Hydrochloric acid, the enzyme pepsin and mucus.
  • The hydrochloric creates an acidic medium which facilitates the action of the enzyme pepsin i.e. digestion of protein.
  • The mucus helps to protect the stomach wall from its own secretions of hydrochloric acid.
  • The partially digested food then goes from the stomach into the small intestine.

Small intestine:
  • From the stomach, the partially digested food enters the small intestine.
  • The small intestine is the largest part (about 6.5m) of the alimentary canal.
  • The small intestine is very narrow and arranged in the form of a coil in our belly.
  • The small intestine in human beings is the site of complete digestion of food (like carbohydrates, proteins and fats)
  • The small intestine receives the secretion of two glands: Liver and Pancreas.
  • Liver secretes bile (greenish yellow liquid made in the liver and stored in gall bladder).
  • Bile performs two functions:
    1. Makes the acidic food coming from the stomach alkaline so that pancreatic enzymes can act on it.
    2. Bile salts break the fats present in the food into small globules making it easy for the enzymes to act and digest them.
  • The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which contains enzymes like pancreatic amylase for breaking down starch, trypsin for digesting proteins and lipase for breaking down emulsified fats.
  • The walls of the small intestine contain glands which secretes intestinal juice. The enzymes present in it finally convert the proteins into amino acids, complex carbohydrates into glucose and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
  • In this way the process of digestion converts the large and insoluble food molecules into small water soluble molecules.

Absorption:
  • The small intestine is the main region for the absorption of digested food.
  • The inner surface of the small intestine has numerous finger-like projections called villi which increase the surface area for rapid absorption of digested food.
  • The digested food which is absorbed through the walls of the small intestine goes into our blood.

Assimilation:
  • The blood carries digested and dissolved food to all the parts of the body where it becomes assimilated as part of the cells and is utilised for obtaining energy, building up new tissues and the repair of old tissues.

Egestion:
  • The unabsorbed food is sent into the large intestine where more villi absorb water from this material.
  • The rest of the material is removed from the body via the anus.
  • The exit of this waste material is regulated by the anal sphincter.


Test your understanding

1. Animals are _____ and hence they depend on other organisms (plants and other animals) for their food.

2. All the animals can be classified into three groups ____,_____,______on the basis of their food habits.

3. The process of obtaining food by __________________ is called phagocytosis.

4. The process of taking food into the body is called ______ and while the process in which the undigested food is removed from the body is called _____.

5. All the processes of nutrition are performed by the single cell in _____ animals and _____ is one such animals which lives in water.

6. The process in which the absorbed food is taken in by the body cells and used for energy, growth and repair is called __________________.

7. The various organs of the human digestive system in sequence are: _____,_____,______,______ and ______.

8. The __________________ is a J-shaped organ present on the left side of the abdomen.

9. The gastric juice contains three substances __________________ , the enzyme pepsin and mucus.

10. The small intestine in human beings is the site of complete digestion of food (like carbohydrates, proteins and fats) and it receives the secretion of two glands __________________ and _____.

11. The process in which the food containing large, insoluble molecules is broken down into small, water soluble molecules is called ____ and while the process in which the digested food passes through the intestinal wall into blood stream is called __________________.

12. The ______ is the main region for the absorption of digested food.




Respiration

The process of releasing energy from food is called respiration.
The process of respiration involves taking in oxygen (of air) into the cells, using it for releasing energy by burning food, and then eliminating the waste products (carbon dioxide and water) from the body.
Respiration in Plants
  • The process of respiration which releases energy takes place inside the cells of the body. So, it is also known as cellular respiration.
  • Respiration is essential for life because it provide energy for carrying out all the life processes which are necessary to keep the organism alive.

Breathing and Respiration:

Breathing
Respiration
The mechanism by which organisms obtain oxygen from the air and release carbon dioxide is called breathing.
Respiration includes breathing as well as the oxidation of food in the cells of the organism to release energy.
Breathing is a physical process.
Respiration includes physical as well as biochemical process of oxidation of food.
The process of breathing involves the lungs of the organism.
The process of respiration involves the lungs and mitochondria of the cells.

How Energy Released during Respiration is Stored:

  • The energy produced during respiration is stored in the form of ATP molecules in the cells of the body and used by the organism as when required.
  • ADP (Adenosine Di-Phosphate, low energy content), Inorganic Phosphate (Pi) and ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate, high energy content) are the substances present inside a cell.
  • The energy released during respiration is used to make ATP molecules form ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Energy stored in Respiration in plants
  • Thus, energy is stored in the form of ATP.
  • When the cell needs energy, then ATP can be broken down using water to release energy. Thus:
Energy released in Respiration in plants
  • The energy equivalent to 30.5KJ/mole is released in this process.
  • ATP is known as energy currency of cells.

Types of Respiration:

In most of the cases, the organisms carry out respiration by using oxygen. There are, however some organisms which carry out respiration without using oxygen. Based on this, we have two types respiration:
  1. Aerobic respiration
  2. Anaerobic respiration

Aerobic Respiration:

  • The respiration which uses oxygen is called aerobic respiration.
  • In aerobic respiration, the glucose food is completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water by oxidation.
  • Aerobic respiration produces a considerable amount of energy for use by the organism which gets stored in the ATP molecules.
Aerobic Respiration
  • Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respiration in the cells. Thus, the breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in mitochondria.    

Anaerobic Respiration:

  • The respiration which takes place without oxygen is called anaerobic respiration.
  • The microscopic organisms like yeast and some bacteria obtain energy by anaerobic respiration (which is called fermentation).
  • In anaerobic respiration, the microorganisms like yeast break down glucose (food) into ethanol and carbon dioxide, and release energy.
  • Anaerobic respiration produces much less energy which gets stored in the ATP molecules.
Anaerobic Respiration
  • Sometimes, when there is lack of oxygen in our muscle cells, another pathway for the breakdown of pyruvate is taken. Here the pyruvate is converted into lactic acid (which is also a three-carbon molecule) with the release of small amount of energy.
Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration In Plants

  • Like animals, plants also need energy. The plants get this energy by the process of respiration. Plants also use oxygen of air for respiration and release carbon dioxide.
  • The respiration in plants differs from the animals in three respects:
Respiration in plants
Respiration in animals
All the parts of a plant (like root, stem and leaves) perform respiration individually.
An animal performs respiration as a single unit.
During respiration in plants, there is a little transport of respiratory gases from one part of the plant to the other.
Respiratory gases are usually transported over long distance inside an animal during respiration.
The respiration in plants occurs at a slow rate.
The respiration in animals occurs at a much faster rate.

Plants get Oxygen by Diffusion:

  • Plants have a branching shape, so they have quite a large surface area in comparison to their volume. Therefore, diffusion alone can supply all the cells of the plants with as much oxygen as they need for respiration.
  • Diffusion occurs in the rots, stems and leaves of plants.

Respiration in Roots:

  • Air occurs in soil interspaces. Root hairs of the roots are in direct contact with them.
  • Oxygen of the soil air diffuses through root hair and reaches all internal cells of the root for respiration.
  • Carbon dioxide produced by root cells diffuses in the opposite direction.
  • In water-logged conditions, soil air becomes deficient. In the absence of oxygen, metabolic activity of the root declines and the plant may wither.

Respiration in Stems:

  • The stems of herbaceous plants have stomata. The oxygen from air diffuses into the stem of a herbaceous plant through stomata and reaches all the cells for respiration.
  • The carbon dioxide gas produced during respiration diffuses out into the air through the same stomata.
  • In woody stems, the bark has lenticels for gaseous exchange.

Respiration in Leaves:

  • The leaves of a plant have tiny pores called stomata. The exchange of respiratory gases in the leaves takes place by the process of diffusion through stomata.

Net gaseous exchange in the leaves of the plant:

  1. During day time, when photosynthesis occurs, oxygen is produced. The leaves use some of this oxygen for respiration and rest of the oxygen diffuses out into air.
  • Again, during the day time, carbon dioxide produced by respiration is all used up in photosynthesis by leaves. Even more carbon dioxide is taken in from air.
  • Thus, net gas exchange in leaves during day time is: O2 diffuses out ; CO2 diffuses in.
  1. At night time, when no photosynthesis occurs and hence no oxygen is produced, oxygen from air diffuses into leaves to carry out respiration. And carbon dioxide produced by respiration diffuses out into air.
  • Thus, net gas exchange in leaves at night is: O2 diffuses in; CO2 diffuses out.

Test your understanding

1. The process of _______ involves taking in oxygen (of air) into the cells, using it for releasing energy by burning food, and then eliminating the waste products ($CO_2$ and $H2O$) from the body.

2. Respiration or the exchange of gases takes place in hard and woody stems through ______.

3. _____ ,_____ and _______ are the three substances present inside a cell.

4. The respiration which uses $O_2$ is called _______ respiration.

5. The energy produced during respiration is stored in the form of _____ molecules in the cells of the body and used by the organism as when required.

6. _________ are the sites of aerobic respiration in the cells.

7. The energy released during respiration is used to make ATP molecules form __________________ and inorganic phosphate.

8. Roots in plants absorb air needed for respiration through ______.

9. The respiration which takes place without $O_2$ is called _______ respiration.

10. The tiny pores on the surface of leaves of a plant through which gas exchange occurs are called _____.

11. The microscopic organisms like yeast and some bacteria obtain energy by anaerobic respiration (which is called __________________).

12.__________________ is known as energy currency of cells.



Respiration in Animals

  • Different animals have different modes of respiration.

    Animals
    Respiratory organ
    Unicellular animals like Amoeba, Planaria
    Cell membrane
    Earthworm
    Skin
    Aquatic animals like Fish, Prawns
    Gills
    Insects like Grasshopper, Cockroach
    Spiracles and tracheae
    Land animals like Humans, birds
    Lungs

  • All the respiratory organs have three common features:
    1. All the respiratory organs have a large surface area to get enough oxygen.
    2. All the respiratory organs have thin walls for easy diffusion and exchange of respiratory gases.
    3. All the respiratory organs like skin gills, and lungs have a rich blood supply for transporting respiratory gases.
  • Terrestrial animals can breathe the oxygen in the atmosphere, but animals that live in water (aquatic animals) need to use the oxygen dissolved in water.
  • Since the amount of dissolved oxygen is fairly low compared to the amount of oxygen in the air, the rate of breathing in aquatic organisms is much faster than that seen in terrestrial organisms.

Respiration in Amoeba:

  • Amoeba is single-celled animal. Amoeba depends on simple diffusion of gases from breathing.
  • The exchange of gases in Amoeba takes place through its cell membrane.
  • Amoeba lives in water. This water has oxygen dissolved in it. The oxygen from water diffuses into the body of Amoeba through its cell membrane.
  • Since the amoeba is very small in size, so the oxygen spreads quickly into the whole body of Amoeba.
  • This oxygen is used for respiration inside the Amoeba cell. The process of respiration produces carbon dioxide gas continuously. This carbon dioxide gas diffuses out through the membrane of amoeba into the surrounding water.

Respiration in Earthworm:

  • The earthworm exchanges the gases through its skin. The earthworm absorbs the oxygen is needed for respiration through is moist skin.
  • The oxygen is then transported to all the cells of the earthworm by its blood where it is used in respiration.
  • The carbon dioxide produced during respiration is carried back by the blood. This CO2 is expelled from the body of the earthworm through its skin.  

Respiration in Fish:

  • The fish has special organs for breathing called ‘gills’. The fish has gills on both the sides of its head.
  • The fish lives in water and this water contains dissolves oxygen in it. The fish breathes by taking in water through its mouth and sending it over the gills.
  • When water passes over gills, the gills extract dissolved oxygen from this water. The water then goes out through the gill slits.
  • The extracted oxygen is absorbed by the blood and carried to all the parts of the fish. The carbon dioxide produced by the respiration is brought back by the blood into the gills for expelling into the surrounding water. Note: diffusion is insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of large multicellular organisms like humans because the volume of human body is so big that oxygen cannot diffuse into all the cells of the human body quickly.

Respiratory system in Humans

  • In human beings, many organs take part in the process of respiration. These organs are called organs of respiratory system.
  • The main organs of human respiratory system are: Nose, Nasal passage, Trachea (wind pipe), Bronchi, Lungs and Diaphragm.
  • The human respiratory system begins from the nose. The air then goes into nasal passage. The nasal passage is lined is lined with fine hair and mucus.
  • When air passes through the nasal passage, the dust particles and other impurities present in it are trapped by nasal hair and mucus so that clean air goes into lungs.
  • The part of throat between the mouth and wind pipe is called pharynx.
  • From the nasal passage, air enters into pharynx and then goes into the wind pipe. Trachea does not collapse even when there is no air in it because it is supported by rings of soft bones called cartilage.
  • The trachea runs down the neck and divides into two smaller tubes called bronchi at its lower end.
  • The bronchi are connected to the two lungs. The lungs lie in the chest cavity or thoracic cavity which is separated from abdominal cavity by a muscular partition called diaphragm.
  • Each bronchus divides in the lungs to form a large number of still smaller tubes called ‘bronchioles’.
  • The pouch-like air sacs at the ends of the smallest bronchioles are called alveoli.
  • The walls of alveoli are very thin and they are surrounded by very thin blood capillaries.
  • It is in the alveoli that gaseous exchange takes place.

Mechanism of Respiration:

  • When we breathe in, we lift our ribs and flatten our diaphragm. And the chest cavity becomes larger as a result. Because of this, air is sucked into the lungs and fills the expanded alveoli.
  • The alveoli are surrounded by thin blood vessels called capillaries carrying blood in them. So. The oxygen of air diffuses out from the alveoli walls into the blood.
  • The oxygen is carried by blood to all the parts of the body. As the blood passes through the tissues of the body, the oxygen present in it diffuses into the cells.
  • The oxygen combines with the digested food present in the cells to release energy.
  • Carbon dioxide gas is produced as a waste product during respiration in the cells of the body tissues. This carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood.
  • Blood carries the CO2 back to the lungs where it diffuses into the alveoli.
  • When we breathe out air. The diaphragm and muscles attached to the ribs relax due to which our chest cavity contracts and becomes smaller. This contraction movement of the chest pushes out CO2 from the alveoli of lungs into the trachea, nostrils then out of the body into air.
  • Note: During the breathing cycle, when air is taken in and let out, the lungs always contain a residual volume of air so that there is sufficient time for oxygen to be absorbed and for the carbon dioxide to be released.
  • Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen is and hence is mostly transported in the dissolved form in our blood.

Rate of breathing:

  • The process of breathing pumps in oxygen into our body (and removes CO2).
  • Breathing occurs involuntarily but the rate of breathing is controlled by the respiratory system of brain.
  • The average breathing rate in an adult man at rest is about 15 to 18 times per minute. This breathing rate increases with increased physical activity.
    1. Oxygen required for breathing and respiration is carried by haemoglobin pigment present in our blood. The normal range of haemoglobin in the blood of a healthy adult person is from 12 to 18 grams per deciliter of blood.
    2. The deficiency of haemoglobin in the blood of a person reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood resulting in breathing problems, tiredness and lack of energy.

Carbon monoxide poisoning:

  • Carbon monoxide gas (CO) is formed whenever a fuel burns in an insufficient supply of air. For car engine. For example, if coal is burned in a closed space, then a lot of carbon monoxide is formed. CO produced when petrol burns in a car engine.
  • Haemoglobin has more affinity for carbon monoxide than oxygen, So, if carbon monoxide gas is inhaled by a person, then this carbon monoxide binds very strongly with haemoglobin in the blood and prevents it from carrying oxygen to the brain and other parts of the body.
  • Due to lack of oxygen, the person cannot breathe properly. If carbon monoxide is inhale for a

Check your understanding

1. Match the column
Respiration in animals

2. The rate of breathing in aquatic organisms is ______ than that seen in terrestrial organisms.

3.__________________ is single-celled animal.

4.The fish has special organs for breathing called __________________.The fish breathes by taking in water through its mouth and sending it over the ____, the gills extract dissolved __________________ from this water.

5. The main organs of human respiratory system are: Nose, Nasal passage, Trachea , Bronchi, __________________ and _____.

6.The part of throat between the mouth and wind pipe is called ____.

7. The average breathing rate in an adult man at rest is about _______.

8. The normal range of haemoglobin in the blood of a healthy adult person is from _______________.

9. The deficiency of _______ in the blood of a person reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood resulting in breathing problems, tiredness and lack of energy.

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Practice Question

Question 1 Which among the following is not a base?
A) NaOH
B) $NH_4OH$
C) $C_2H_5OH$
D) KOH
Question 2 What is the minimum resistance which can be made using five resistors each of 1/2 Ohm?
A) 1/10 Ohm
B) 1/25 ohm
C) 10 ohm
D) 2 ohm
Question 3 Which of the following statement is incorrect? ?
A) For every hormone there is a gene
B) For production of every enzyme there is a gene
C) For every molecule of fat there is a gene
D) For every protein there is a gene


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Class 10 Maths Class 10 Science