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How is the continuity of water column maintained? Answer
The continuity of the water column is maintained by the adhesive and cohesive properties of water. The adhesive property of the water molecules makes them adhere to the xylem walls and its cohesive property makes the water molecules remain together and move up as a stream.
How are the minerals transported across the plants? Answer
The minerals are transported in their ionic, soluble form along with water across the plant in xylem and phloem.
In what form is the food transported along phloem? Answer: The food is transported along the phloem in the form of sucrose, a o carbohydrate.
What is translocation? Answer
The transport system of soluble substances like sugars, amino acids and hormones by the phloem is called translocation.
What are the substances translocated in the phloem? Answer
The phloem translocate the food manufactured by the leaves, the hormones and the minerals ions from the falling leaves to the other regions of the plant.
What is the path of the translocation of the food in the plant? Answer
The food is manufacture in the leaves. From the mesophyll cells of the leaves, food enters the phloem cells. They are then transported along the phloem to different parts of the plants. From the phloem, the cells draw the food as per their requirement.
How is the food translocated in the phloem? Answer
The food is translocated in the phloem along the concentration gradient. That is, the food is translocated from the region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration in the phloem.
How the materials transported in higher animals? Answer
In higher animals, the minerals are transported by the mass flow system called the circulatory system. its involving the movement of a liquid medium through the closed tubes and opened spaces between the cells.
What are the types of substances transported by the circulatory system? Answer
The materials transported by the circulatory system include:
What are the two types of circulatory systems in a man? Answer
The two types of circulatory systems are:
Blood circulatory system
What are the types of blood circulatory system? Answer
The two types of blood circulatory systems are:
Open circulatory systems
Close circulatory systems
What is an open circulatory system? Answer
In the open circulatory system, the exchange of materials between of the cells and the blood is done directly. The blood enters into the interstitial space (space between the tissues) and circulates in these spaces. There are few blood vessels but they are not extensive. The blood vessels are open- ended as they open into the common cavities called the haemocoel. For example: Insects.
What are the three components of circulatory system in man? Answer
The three components of the circulatory system in man are:
Blood: A fluid that carries all the material
Heart: The pumping organ
Blood vessels: Tubes through which the fluid can flow to different parts of the body.
What is blood made up of? Answer
Blood is made up of:
The liquid component called the plasma
The solid components: the formed elements that are freely present in the plasma. The solid elements include the red blood cells, white blood cells and the platelets.
Mention any two functions of plasma. Answer
The two functions of plasma are:
Maintaining osmotic pressure and viscosity of the blood
Helping in transport of substances like the hormones and enzymes.
What is the main function of the red blood cells?
The main function of the red blood cells is to carry oxygen. These cells contain the pigment hemoglobin which has an affinity for oxygen
Write short notes on Erythrocytes? Answer
Erythrocytes are the red blood cells. They are biconcave discs with the edges being thicker than the center. They are enucleated and contain a pigment called the hemoglobin. The hemoglobin gives the characteristic red color. They number 5 million per cubic mm in adult males and 4.5 million per cubic mm in adult females. They are synthesized in the bone marrow of certain bones like the sternum. Each has a life span of about 120 days. After this, they are destroyed in the liver.
What are the functions of leucocytes? Answer
The functions of leucocytes are:
Phagocytosis : The neutrophils and lymphocytes can engulf foreign bodies by the process called phagocytes.
Antibody Production: The leucocytes produce antibodies that attack the foreign bodies.
Anti- allergic Properties Eosinophil, a granulocytes thought to be anti- allergic.
What is the other name for platelets and what is their function? Answer
Platelets are also called thrombocytes. They play an important role in the clotting of blood.
What are the functions of platelets? Answer
The functions of platelets are:
a. Release of thromboplastin when damaged.
Thromboplastin which initiates a series of reactions that result in the clotting of blood.
b. Retraction of clot
The clot formed by the blood is further made dense by the addition of platelets and this retracts the clot making it tighter and smaller.
c.Repair of damaged endothelium
The platelets stick to the damaged portion of the wall and prevent loss of blood.
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